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Supplying Power for Implantable Biosensors
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  1. Supplying Power for Implantable Biosensors Introduction to Biosensors 16.441, 16.541 Group Members: Sujith Kana Jesse Vengren

  2. Abstract • Powering implantable biosensors is difficult. • Do not what to limit the subjects movement or impede them in anyway. • Want it to be minimally invasive • Want the power supply to last • Do not to want to constantly replacing them • Miniaturization is critical

  3. Background • Biosensors thou are fad in the current decade, they have been there since early 1970’s. • Powering up the biosensor was a challenge even in 1970’s • Earliest application was pace maker • Mercury-Zinc was powering the pacemaker • Nuclear fueled cells considered as an option!

  4. Energy Harvesting • Gathering energy from environment the device is in • Many different energy harvesting techniques: wind, solar, kinetic, thermal • Not every one is appropriate for implantable biosensors

  5. Kinetic Energy • Using the motion of the body to generate power. • Three methods to turn mechanical into electric energy • Electromagnetic, Electrostatic, and Piezoelectric

  6. Electromagnetic • Uses the change in magnetic flux to create power • Generated by moving a coil through a magnetic field • Relatively simple • Same Method used in watches

  7. Electrostatic • Uses variable capacitors • Changes in the distance between the plates to change either current or voltage • This type of kinetic energy is used in MEMS • Works well at low power

  8. Piezoelectric • By deforming piezoelectric material you can generate a voltage • Out side of the body it is easy to create mechanical deformation • Hard to find a natural body motion to create deformation

  9. Issues with Kinetic Energy • Moving parts wear out • Electrostatic requires preexisting Charge • For Piezoelectric need to be able to cause mechanical deformation

  10. Thermal Energy • Uses temperature difference to create voltage • Seebeck Effect: Voltage is generated due to a difference in temperature between two junctions of dissimilar metals • Many thermocouples in series to create thermopile

  11. Issues with Thermal Energy • To need large ΔT for single thermocouple • Internal temperature change is small • When ΔT is small onethermocouple does not generate much energy • Size becomes and issue.

  12. Acoustic Power • Application of piezoelectric kinetic energy • Power by acoustic waves • Waves generated outside the body transmit power to implanted device • Antenna similar to speaker cone receives acoustic wave and deforms piezoelectric material

  13. Fuel Cell • Sir William Grove found it in 1839 • On chip power for microelectronics • Traditional Fuel cells vs Biological Fuel Cells • Powered by Sacccharomyces Cerevisiae

  14. Conventional Fuel Cell

  15. Fuel Cell Continued…

  16. Discussion

  17. Discussion • Yeast • Cell Inoculum • Temperature • Glucose Concentration • Stagnant vs Agitated solution • Aerobic vs Anaerobic Condition • Active and Reserve Configuration

  18. Discussion ctnd… 1. Yeast

  19. Discussion Cntd… 2. Temperature

  20. Discussion Cntd… 3. Glucose Concentration

  21. Discussion Cntd… 4. Stagnant vs Agitated Solution

  22. Discussion Cntd 5. Aerobic vs Anaerobic Condition

  23. Discussion Cntd 6. Active and Reserve Configuration

  24. Issues of Biological fuel cells • Micro watts of power generation • Performance over time • Environmental conditions • Electrochemical contact of the micro-organism • Cost

  25. RF Power • Amplifier • Inductive Coupling • Rectifier • DC Regulator Figure 1: Simplified RF Powering System (ref 1)

  26. RF Power continued…

  27. Issues of RF power • Changes in coupling coefficient • Confined to lab • Heating of tissues • Dependence on patient compliance • Possible RF interference

  28. Conclusion • There are many possible option for powering implantable biosensors • Each method has its pros and cons • Some are closer to being reality then others • Technology is constantly advancing

  29. Work Cited • Victor Parsonnet, M.D. “Power Sources for Implantable Cardiac • Pacemakers*” Chest American College of Chest Physicians 1972 • Nattapon Chaimanonart, Keith R. Olszens, Mark D. Zimmerman, Wen H. Ko, and Darrin J. Young, “ Implantable RF Power Converter for Small Animal In Vivo Biological Monitoring” Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology 27th Annual Conference Shanghai, China, September 1-4, 2005 • Chaimanonart, W. H. Ko, D. J. Young, “Remote RF Powering System for MEMS Strain Sensors,” Technical Digest of The Third IEEE International Conference on Sensors, pp. 1522 –1525, October2004 • Bhatia D, Bairagi S, Goel S, Jangra M. Pacemakers charging using body energy. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2010;2:51-4 • Charles W. Walker, Jr. and Alyssa L. Walker, “Biological Fuel Cell Functional as an Active or Reserve Power Source” , ARL-TR-3840 Army Research Lab • Jonathan Lueke and Walied A. Moussa, “MEMS-Based Power Generation Techniques for Implantable Biosensing Applications ” Sensors 2011, 11, 1433-1460; • Kerzenmacher, S.; Ducree, J.; Zengerle, R.; von Stetten, F. Energy Harvesting by Implantable Abiotically Catalyzed Glucose Fuel Cells. J. Power Source. 2008, 182, 1-17. • Rao, J.R. Boelectrochemistry. I. Biological Redox Reactions; Milazzo, G., Black, M., Eds.; Plenum Press: New York, NY, USA, 1983; pp. 283-355. • Mano, N.; Mao, F.; Heller, A. Characteristics of a Miniature Compartment-less Glucose-O2 Biofuel Cell and Its Operation in a Living Plant. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 6588-6594. • Kuhn, M.; Napporn, T.; Meunier, M.; Therriault, D.; Vengallatore, S. Fabrication and Testing of Coplanar Single-Chamber Micro Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Geometrically Complex Electrodes. J. Power Source. 2008, 177, 148-153. • Olivo, Jacopo, Sandro Carrara, and Giovanni De Micheli. "Energy Harvesting and Remote Powering for Implantable Biosensors - Infoscience." Home - Infoscience. Web. 04 March. 2011. • Shih, Po-Jen, and Wen-Pin Shih. "Design, Fabrication, and Application of Bio-Implantable Acoustic Power Transmission." IEEEXplore. Web. 4 Mar. 2011. • Walker, Charles W., and Alyssa L. Walker. "Biological Fuel Cell Functional as an Active or Reserve Power Source." Web. 4 Mar. 2011. <http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA450058>. • N. G. Elvin, A. A. Elvin, and M. Spector, “A self-powered mechanical strain energy sensor,” Smart Mater. Struct., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 293–299, Apr. 2001. • M. Umeda, K. Nakamura, and S. Ueha, “Energy storage characteristics of a piezo generator using impact induced vibration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pt. 1, no. 5B, pp. 3146–3151, May 1997. • Beeby, S. P., Torah Tudor, and M.J. Tudor. "Kinetic Energy Harvesting." Yahoo! Search - Web Search. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. <http://74.6.238.254/search/srpcache?ei=UTF-8>. • http://americanhistory.si.edu/fuelcells/basics.htm