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CHAPTER 3: BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS. Section One: Forms of Business Organization. I. Forming a Proprietorship. Easiest form of business to start-needs only the occasional licenses and fees Ease of start up Relative ease of management Decisions can be made quickly. Proprietorship Advantages.

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chapter 3 business organizations


Section One: Forms of Business Organization

i forming a proprietorship
I. Forming a Proprietorship
  • Easiest form of business to start-needs only the occasional licenses and fees
  • Ease of start up
  • Relative ease of management
  • Decisions can be made quickly
proprietorship advantages
Proprietorship Advantages
  • Owner enjoys the PROFITS of successful management without having to share
  • No separate business income taxes
    • Not recognized as a separate legal entity
    • Owner must pay individual income taxes on profits
    • Business is exempt from any tax on the income
  • Psychological satisfaction
  • Easy to get out of business
proprietary disadvantages
Proprietary Disadvantages
  • Unlimited liability
    • Owner is personally and fully responsible for all loses and debts of the business
    • If business fails, the owner’s personal possessions may be taken away to satisfy business debts
  • Difficult to raise capital
    • Personal financial resources are limited
  • Size and efficiency: Inventory is any unused stock of finished goods/parts in reserve
proprietary disadvantages1
Proprietary Disadvantages
  • Limited Managerial Skills
  • Difficulty of attracting qualified employees
    • Fringe benefits- Employee benefits such as vacation, sick leave, retirement, medical, and health insurance may not be available
  • Limited lifespan: The firm legally ceases to exist when the owner dies, quits, or sells the business
ii partnerships
II. Partnerships
  • Owned by 2 or more persons
  • Least numerous business organization
  • Smallest proportion of sales and net income
types of partnerships
Types of Partnerships
  • General Partnership: All partners are responsible for the management and financial obligations of the business.
  • Limited Partnership: At least one partner is not active in the daily running of the business, although he or she may have contributed funds to finance the operation
  • Ex.
forming a partnership
Forming a Partnership

Relatively easy to start

Articles of Partnership: Formal legal papers which specify arrangements between partners

advantages of partnerships
Advantages of Partnerships

Ease of start up.

Articles of Partnership involves attorney fees and filing fee for the state.

Ease of management: Each partner usually brings different areas of expertise to the business.

Lack of special taxes: Partners draw profits from the firm and then pay individual income taxes at the end of the year

advantages of partnerships1
Advantages of Partnerships

Usually attract financial capital more easily than a sole proprietorship

Slightly larger size = greater efficiency

Lawyers, doctors, accountants

Usually attract top talent to their organizations

disadvantages of partnerships
Disadvantages of Partnerships

Unlimited Liability: Each partner is fully responsible for the acts of all partners

Limited Partnership: The limited partner has limited liability

Investor’s responsibility for the debts of the business is limited by the size of their investment in the firm

If business fails with a large debt, the limited partner (investor) only loses their original investment, leaving the general partners to make up the rest

disadvantages of partnerships1
Disadvantages of Partnerships
  • Limited Life: When a partner leaves or dies, the partnership must be dissolved and reorganized.
    • The new partner may try to keep an agreement to keep its name
  • Potential for Conflict: “Why can’t we all just get along?”
warm up
  • Get out a sheet of paper
  • Look up P&G
  • Find one of their companies, write this down
  • Then write down 5 products that the company makes
iii corporations
III. Corporations

Defn: A form of business organization recognized by law a a separate legal entity having all as an individual.

Can buy & sell property

Enter into legal contracts and sue and besued

Account for 1/5 of the firms in the US

Account for 90% of all sales


forming a corporation
Forming a Corporation

Very formal and legal arrangement

Incorporation (or forming a corporation) must file for permission from the state where business will have be headquartered

Charter: A government document that gives permission to create a corporation if approved

States the company name, address, purpose of business, and the number of shares of stock, or ownership certificates, within the firm

forming a corporation continued
Forming a Corporation, continued

Shares of stock are sold to investors called…

stockholders, or shareholders.

$$ is then used to set-up corporation

A check, or dividend, is paid to shareholders if the corporation is profitable

corporate structure common stock
Corporate Structure: Common Stock

Investors become owners with certain ownership rights, depending on type of stock purchased:

Common Stock: Basic ownership of corporation

Owner usually receives 1 vote for each share of stock

Used to elect board of directors who direct the corporation’s business by setting policies/goals

The Board hires a professional management team to run the business on a daily basis

common stock
Common Stock

The dividend is variable and common stock shareholders are the last to receive a dividend or get their $$ back if corporation fails.

preferred stock
Preferred Stock

Nonvoting ownership shares of a corporation

These shareholders receive dividends first and they are fixed

If there are funds or property left after a business fails, preferred stockholders get their investment back first!

Preferred stockholders cannot elect the board of directors-THEY CANNOT VOTE!!

advantages of the corporation
Advantages of the Corporation

Ease of raising financial capital

Need more capital?

Sell additional stock

Borrow $$ by issuing bonds: Written promise to repay the amount borrowed at a later date

Principal: Amount borrowed to be repaid later

Interest: The price paid by the corporation for the use of another’s $$

advantages of the corporation1
Advantages of the Corporation

Ease of finding professional managers

Limited liability for its owners

Corporation is fully responsible for its debts and obligations

**Because limited liability is so attractive, many firms incorporate just to take advantage of it

advantages of the corporation2
Advantages of the Corporation

Unlimited life: Corporation continues to exist even when ownership changes

Because the corporation is a legal entity, the name of the company remains the same, and the corporation continues to do business

Ease of transferring ownership: If a shareholder no longer wants to be an owner, they can sell the stock

disadvantages of the corporation
Disadvantages of the Corporation

Difficult to get a charter

Depending on the state, attorneys’ fees and filing expense can cost several thousand $$

Owners/shareholders have little say in business affairs after voting for board of directors

Double Taxation: Corporate profits

Stockholders’ dividends are taxed twice: once as corporate profit and again as personal income

disadvantages of the corporation1
Disadvantages of the Corporation

Lots of Government regulation:

Register with state where the Corp. is chartered

To sell stock to the public, the Corp. must register with the Securities and Exchange Commission

Provide detailed financial statements on regular basis to the general public

When taking over another business, the Corp may require federal approval

government and business regulation
Government and Business Regulation

Business Regulation: In the 20th century, various consumer groups demanded regulation of giant corporations.

Federal and state governments responded by passing stronger regulations.

Rigorous regulations for banks, insurance companies, electricity, telephone, and transportation

Ex?, Sherman and Clayton Anti-trust Acts, FDIC, Federal Reserve, FCC, Dept. of Transportation

government and business regulation1
Government and Business Regulation

Business Development: States try to attract new industry. Offer tax credit or a reduction in taxes for a business to move to a state

Examples in TX?

  • Mergers – combination of two or more businesses into one.
    • Horizontal: two alike companies join forces- AT&T and Cingular
    • Vertical: bring together firms that produce one product – baseball bats
types of corporations
Types of corporations
  • Conglomerate – four or more businesses from Mergers and Acquisitions
  • Multinational – corp. has businesses in many countries
business mathematics
Business Mathematics
  • Income Statement – shows a business’ sales, expenses and profits
  • Net Income – revenues minus expenses and taxes.
    • Expenses– inventory, wages, interest payments, and depreciation
  • *Depreciation is a non cash charge(your capitals goods wear out and get old)
  • Cash Flow – the sum of net income and non-cash charges
  • *it’s a real measure of profits for a business