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Diversity in Sport Organizations Dana Massengale PED 735 Diversity in Sport Organizations What? So What? Now What? What? Diversity in business Video http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=3733225786590357129 Definition Video http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1906843418868393347

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diversity in sport organizations

Diversity in Sport Organizations

Dana Massengale

PED 735

diversity in sport organizations2
Diversity in Sport Organizations
  • What?
  • So What?
  • Now What?
slide3
What?
  • Diversity in business
  • Video
  • http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=3733225786590357129
  • Definition Video

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1906843418868393347

diversity activities
Diversity Activities
  • Diversity Definition
  • Proverbs
  • Wikki Stixs
so what
So What?
  • Challenges facing diversity in sport organizations
  • 1 gender
  • 2 race
  • 3 sexual orientation
  • 4 religious beliefs
  • 5 socioeconomic
gender
Gender
  • Women in leadership positions
  • Quick facts
    • Only 17.7 of all teams are coached by a female head coach (
  • Average Number of female administrators in Women’s Programs =1.21
  • No woman’s voice is heard anywhere in the administration of almost 1 out of 7 programs

98% of all schools have a full time sports information director but…

Only 12.1% of the jobs are held by Women

(Acosta and Carpenter 2006)

gender7
Gender
  • Media representation
  • Media video
  • http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-7573192443210581497&q=women+sport+media&total=237&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0
  • Quick facts
campus media
College Newspaper

72.7% male

27.3% female

College Television

81.5 % male

18.5% female

Campus Media

Gender Equity by Campus Media

(Huffman, Tuggle, & Rosengar,2006)

the media
The Media
  • Women in Televised Sport
  • Study
    • 6weeks
    • Evening news/ SportCenter
    • 2% 0f total minutes
    • Including……
sportcenter
“It’s a Boys Club”

1977

5%

2004

2.2%

ESPN TOP 100

ESPN Response

SportCenter

(Adams and Tuggle 2004)

annika sorenstam
Annika Sorenstam
  • 2003 PGA tournament
    • Men
      • Athletic skill
    • Annika
      • Emotion
      • Attractiveness
      • Body

(Billings, Craig , &Croce, 2003)

olympics
Olympics
  • Airtime
    • Men 53
    • Women 47
      • (Tuggle & Owens 1999)
  • Sports
    • Physically attractive
gender14
Gender
  • Opportunity for girls
  • Wrestling video
  • http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-1211684149489130370&q=girl+wrestler&total=4158&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=1
  • Quick facts
intercollegiate growth
Intercollegiate Growth
  • 1970 =2.5 teams/school
  • 2006 = 8.45 teams/school
  • 1978 =1402 teams
  • 2006 =8702 teams

(Acosta and Carpenter 2006)

participation
Participation
  • Participants in intercollegiate athletics
  • High school = 3,000,000
  • 1970 = 16,000
  • 2006 = 180,000

(Acosta and Carpenter 2006)

slide17
Race
  • Leadership opportunity
  • Quick facts
college sport
College Sport
  • Powerful leaders in college sport are White
    • 94.2% of presidents
    • 85.8% of athletic directors
    • 93.5% of Faculty Athletic Representatives
    • 100% of conference commissioners
      • (Lapchick,2000)
college coaches
College Coaches
  • D-1 head football coaches 93.3% white
    • Total = 120
      • 112-white
      • 6 African American
      • 2 Latino
      • 0 Asians
      • 0 Native Americans
      • 0 Other
          • (Lapchick,2007)
slide20
Race
  • Sport organization policies
  • Draft ?
    • Indiana center Jermaine O'Neal said the NBA's desire to put an age limit in the next collective bargaining agreement could be driven by racism.
    • "As a black guy, you kind of think that's the reason why it's coming up. You don't hear about it in baseball or hockey. To say you have to be 20, 21 to get in the league, it's unconstitutional. If I can go to the U.S. army and fight the war at 18, why can't you play basketball for 48 minutes?"
slide21
Race
  • Racism in sport context
  • Don Imus
    • http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=4926728587433856701&q=Don+Imus+rutgers&total=247&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0

European Soccer

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-8139606538826980392&q=racism&total=11910&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0

Venus

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-7807851969236554843&q=racist+tennis&total=8&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=3

sexual orientation
Sexual Orientation
  • Homophobia
  • Quick Facts
    • Sport organizations avoid talking about lesbian participation in their sport because it could affect public relations, sponsorships, recruitment, and the image of women in the sport.
        • (Demers,2006)
  • Tim Hardaway video

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=6652939990434531230&q=tim+hardaway&total=239&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=2

homophobia
Homophobia
  • Gay athletes are terrified by the prospect of coming out of the closet because of the potential consequences — rejection by their coaches or negative reactions on the part of teammates (“Will they think I’m going to try to seduce them?).
  • In an attempt to deny their homosexuality completely, some gays will become extremely violent toward gays and lesbians, particularly during their teenage years.
  • Homophobia is part and parcel of male sports, because to be “one of the guys” is, by definition, to be homophobic.
        • (Demers,2006)
religious beliefs
Religious beliefs
  • Quick facts
  • Courts
    • After leading his team in prayers for 23 years, Marcus Borden, a football coach in East Brunswick, is involved in a legal battle that is pushing the courts to decide the boundaries of acceptable religious activity for coaches and other educators in public schools.

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit heard arguments on whether Borden has the right to bow his head and kneel while his players pray around him. Borden says he is not leading his players in prayer but simply supporting them. School officials say the coach should not participate in the prayers.

socioeconomic
Socioeconomic
  • Opportunities
  • Quick Facts:
  • Pay to play on the rise
    • USA Today
      • 34 states
    • NIAAA
      • Half of schools
  • Range of names, amounts
  • Participation rates < 1/3
    • (Smith , 2004)
now what
Now What?
  • Bring it home
  • UNLV
  • Address your biases
now what27
Now what?
  • Promote diversity in sport organization
    • Strategies (brainstorm activity)
  • Organizational Structure of diversity
    • Impact of cultural diversity is a function of the management of that diversity (Doherty& Chelladuria,1999)
conclusion
Conclusion
  • What?
  • So What?
  • Now What?
references
References
  • Acosta, R.V. and Carpenter, L.J. (2002) Women in intercollegiate sport. A longitudinal, national study- twenty nine year update- 1977-2006. Unpublished Manuscript. Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, New York.
  • Adams ,T. & Tuggle,C.A ( 2004) ESPN’s SportsCenter and coverage of women’s athletics :”It’s a boys club”. Mass Communication and Society, 7(2)237-248.
  • Antonelli, D. (1994). Marketing intercollegiate women’s basketball. Sport MarketingQuarterly, 3(2), 29–33.
references30
References
  • Barr,C.A.,Sutton, W.A.,& McDermott, E.M.(1999) Marketing implications of Title IX on athletic departments. Sport Market Quarterly.8 (3) 9-20.
  • Billings, A.C., & Halone, K.K.,& Denham, B.E. (2002) “Man” that was a “pretty” shot: An analysis of gender broadcast commentary of the 2000 Men’s and Women’s Final Four basketball tournaments. Mass Communication and Society, 5(3) 295-315.
  • Billings, A.C.,(2006) “Just One of the Guys?” Network depictions of Annika Sorenstam in the 2003 PGA Colonial Tournament. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 30 (1) 107-14.
  • Doherty, A., & Packianathan, C. (1999). Managing cultural diversity in sport organizations: A theoretical perception. Journal of Sport Management, 13, 280-297.
  • Eastman,S.,&Billings,A.C. (2000)Sportscasting and Sports reporting : The power of gender bias . Journal of Sport & Social Issues. 24(2),192-213.
references31
References
  • Hallmark,J.R.,&Armsrong, R.N. (1999). Gender equity in televised sports: A comparative analysis of men’s and women’s NCAA Division1 basketball championship broadcasts, 1991-1995 . Journal of Broadcasting and Electronical Media, 43, 222-235.

Demers. G, (2006)Homophobia in Sport — Fact of Life, Taboo Subject

  • The Canadian Journal for Women in Coaching. Retrieved from:
    • www.coach.ca/WOMEN/e/journal/apr2006/print_developing.htm
  • Lapchick, R. (2007) The buck stops here: Assessing Diversity among campus and confrence leaders for division 1A schools. Retrieved November2,2007 from: www.BUS.EDU/SPORT
  • Tuggle,C.A. (1997). Differences in television sports reporting of men’s and women’s athletics: ESPN SportsCenter and CNN SportsTonight. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 41(14-24).
  • Tuggle,C.A. & Owen A. (1999) A descriptive analysis of NBC’s coverage of the centennial Olympics. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 23(2) 171-182.