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  1. Diversity in Sport Organizations Dana Massengale PED 735

  2. Diversity in Sport Organizations • What? • So What? • Now What?

  3. What? • Diversity in business • Video • http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=3733225786590357129 • Definition Video http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1906843418868393347

  4. Diversity Activities • Diversity Definition • Proverbs • Wikki Stixs

  5. So What? • Challenges facing diversity in sport organizations • 1 gender • 2 race • 3 sexual orientation • 4 religious beliefs • 5 socioeconomic

  6. Gender • Women in leadership positions • Quick facts • Only 17.7 of all teams are coached by a female head coach ( • Average Number of female administrators in Women’s Programs =1.21 • No woman’s voice is heard anywhere in the administration of almost 1 out of 7 programs 98% of all schools have a full time sports information director but… Only 12.1% of the jobs are held by Women (Acosta and Carpenter 2006)

  7. Gender • Media representation • Media video • http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-7573192443210581497&q=women+sport+media&total=237&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0 • Quick facts

  8. College Newspaper 72.7% male 27.3% female College Television 81.5 % male 18.5% female Campus Media Gender Equity by Campus Media (Huffman, Tuggle, & Rosengar,2006)

  9. The Media • Women in Televised Sport • Study • 6weeks • Evening news/ SportCenter • 2% 0f total minutes • Including……

  10. Including….

  11. “It’s a Boys Club” 1977 5% 2004 2.2% ESPN TOP 100 ESPN Response SportCenter (Adams and Tuggle 2004)

  12. Annika Sorenstam • 2003 PGA tournament • Men • Athletic skill • Annika • Emotion • Attractiveness • Body (Billings, Craig , &Croce, 2003)

  13. Olympics • Airtime • Men 53 • Women 47 • (Tuggle & Owens 1999) • Sports • Physically attractive

  14. Gender • Opportunity for girls • Wrestling video • http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-1211684149489130370&q=girl+wrestler&total=4158&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=1 • Quick facts

  15. Intercollegiate Growth • 1970 =2.5 teams/school • 2006 = 8.45 teams/school • 1978 =1402 teams • 2006 =8702 teams (Acosta and Carpenter 2006)

  16. Participation • Participants in intercollegiate athletics • High school = 3,000,000 • 1970 = 16,000 • 2006 = 180,000 (Acosta and Carpenter 2006)

  17. Race • Leadership opportunity • Quick facts

  18. College Sport • Powerful leaders in college sport are White • 94.2% of presidents • 85.8% of athletic directors • 93.5% of Faculty Athletic Representatives • 100% of conference commissioners • (Lapchick,2000)

  19. College Coaches • D-1 head football coaches 93.3% white • Total = 120 • 112-white • 6 African American • 2 Latino • 0 Asians • 0 Native Americans • 0 Other • (Lapchick,2007)

  20. Race • Sport organization policies • Draft ? • Indiana center Jermaine O'Neal said the NBA's desire to put an age limit in the next collective bargaining agreement could be driven by racism. • "As a black guy, you kind of think that's the reason why it's coming up. You don't hear about it in baseball or hockey. To say you have to be 20, 21 to get in the league, it's unconstitutional. If I can go to the U.S. army and fight the war at 18, why can't you play basketball for 48 minutes?"

  21. Race • Racism in sport context • Don Imus • http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=4926728587433856701&q=Don+Imus+rutgers&total=247&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0 European Soccer http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-8139606538826980392&q=racism&total=11910&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0 Venus http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-7807851969236554843&q=racist+tennis&total=8&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=3

  22. Sexual Orientation • Homophobia • Quick Facts • Sport organizations avoid talking about lesbian participation in their sport because it could affect public relations, sponsorships, recruitment, and the image of women in the sport. • (Demers,2006) • Tim Hardaway video http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=6652939990434531230&q=tim+hardaway&total=239&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=2

  23. Homophobia • Gay athletes are terrified by the prospect of coming out of the closet because of the potential consequences — rejection by their coaches or negative reactions on the part of teammates (“Will they think I’m going to try to seduce them?). • In an attempt to deny their homosexuality completely, some gays will become extremely violent toward gays and lesbians, particularly during their teenage years. • Homophobia is part and parcel of male sports, because to be “one of the guys” is, by definition, to be homophobic. • (Demers,2006)

  24. Religious beliefs • Quick facts • Courts • After leading his team in prayers for 23 years, Marcus Borden, a football coach in East Brunswick, is involved in a legal battle that is pushing the courts to decide the boundaries of acceptable religious activity for coaches and other educators in public schools. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit heard arguments on whether Borden has the right to bow his head and kneel while his players pray around him. Borden says he is not leading his players in prayer but simply supporting them. School officials say the coach should not participate in the prayers.

  25. Socioeconomic • Opportunities • Quick Facts: • Pay to play on the rise • USA Today • 34 states • NIAAA • Half of schools • Range of names, amounts • Participation rates < 1/3 • (Smith , 2004)

  26. Now What? • Bring it home • UNLV • Address your biases

  27. Now what? • Promote diversity in sport organization • Strategies (brainstorm activity) • Organizational Structure of diversity • Impact of cultural diversity is a function of the management of that diversity (Doherty& Chelladuria,1999)

  28. Conclusion • What? • So What? • Now What?

  29. References • Acosta, R.V. and Carpenter, L.J. (2002) Women in intercollegiate sport. A longitudinal, national study- twenty nine year update- 1977-2006. Unpublished Manuscript. Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, New York. • Adams ,T. & Tuggle,C.A ( 2004) ESPN’s SportsCenter and coverage of women’s athletics :”It’s a boys club”. Mass Communication and Society, 7(2)237-248. • Antonelli, D. (1994). Marketing intercollegiate women’s basketball. Sport MarketingQuarterly, 3(2), 29–33.

  30. References • Barr,C.A.,Sutton, W.A.,& McDermott, E.M.(1999) Marketing implications of Title IX on athletic departments. Sport Market Quarterly.8 (3) 9-20. • Billings, A.C., & Halone, K.K.,& Denham, B.E. (2002) “Man” that was a “pretty” shot: An analysis of gender broadcast commentary of the 2000 Men’s and Women’s Final Four basketball tournaments. Mass Communication and Society, 5(3) 295-315. • Billings, A.C.,(2006) “Just One of the Guys?” Network depictions of Annika Sorenstam in the 2003 PGA Colonial Tournament. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 30 (1) 107-14. • Doherty, A., & Packianathan, C. (1999). Managing cultural diversity in sport organizations: A theoretical perception. Journal of Sport Management, 13, 280-297. • Eastman,S.,&Billings,A.C. (2000)Sportscasting and Sports reporting : The power of gender bias . Journal of Sport & Social Issues. 24(2),192-213.

  31. References • Hallmark,J.R.,&Armsrong, R.N. (1999). Gender equity in televised sports: A comparative analysis of men’s and women’s NCAA Division1 basketball championship broadcasts, 1991-1995 . Journal of Broadcasting and Electronical Media, 43, 222-235. Demers. G, (2006)Homophobia in Sport — Fact of Life, Taboo Subject • The Canadian Journal for Women in Coaching. Retrieved from: • www.coach.ca/WOMEN/e/journal/apr2006/print_developing.htm • Lapchick, R. (2007) The buck stops here: Assessing Diversity among campus and confrence leaders for division 1A schools. Retrieved November2,2007 from: www.BUS.EDU/SPORT • Tuggle,C.A. (1997). Differences in television sports reporting of men’s and women’s athletics: ESPN SportsCenter and CNN SportsTonight. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 41(14-24). • Tuggle,C.A. & Owen A. (1999) A descriptive analysis of NBC’s coverage of the centennial Olympics. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 23(2) 171-182.