Hybridization of S. glaucus and S. parviflorus Natalie Murrow and Erryn Schneider FSI 2011 at The University of Northern Colorado
Introduction • Hybridization • Negative effects of Hybridization • Sclerocactusglaucus (Threatened) • Sclerocactusparviflorus S. Glaucus ( left) and S. parviflorus (right) http://m.eb.com/assembly/4442 http://www.botanicgardensblog.com/tag/research-and-conservation/
Our Hypothesis • S. parviflorus is hybridizing with S. glaucus • Closely related • Differences reflect S. parviflorus S. parviflorus http://www.flickr.com/photos/pix-diana/3818284347/
Methods • Samples are gathered by the Denver botanic gardens from the grand junction area in Colorado. http://www.nmccskiclub.org/links.php S. glaucussamples being collected http://www.botanicgardensblog.com/author/deprengm/
QiagenDNeasy DNA extraction • Samples were ground with liquid nitrogen • This causes cell disruption to expose the DNA • Samples are labeled and placed in a freezer to preserve DNA.
DNA extraction continued… • The AP1 buffer solution contains detergent. • The AP2 buffer contains chemicals that will take out the detergents • The AP3 buffer contains ethanol. • The new column contains tiny silica (glass) beads that DNA will stick to. • AE solution removes the DNA from the beads.
Gel • 2 µl is run on a gel to make sure the extraction was successful. • Electric current makes it travel through gel medium • Dye visible under UV • DNA fragments are different sizes • Different sizes go different rates
Methods • Microsatellite library • Highly variable repeating regions in DNA • E.g. GTAGTAGTAGTA... • Found by mixing with chemioluminescent tags • Sequenced • Separated by PCR and compared PCR machine http://www.mindupbioresearch.com/biomarkers.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pcr_machine.jpg
Data • Continuing study • 792 individuals in 35 distinct populations • Eleven S. glaucus populations and four S. parviflorus so far http://www.flickr.com/photos/travelingwild/3477872759/
Data • Preliminary results • One isolated population of S. glaucus and another non-isolated just south of two populations of S. parviflorus • Non-isolated population had more genetic similarity to the S. parviflorus that to the isolated population • Continued study needed
Discussion • Preliminary results support hypothesis • Hybridization could have negative effects on S. glaucus • Further research: • Compare more microsatellites • Determine extent • If the findings support the hypothesis, an action plan can be made http://www.flickr.com/photos/travelingwild/2411882759/
Acknowledgements • Our general sponsors, Space Connections Inc. for Natalie and The FSI Alumni of 1979 for Erryn • Our research sponsors, The Edward Madigan Foundation for Natalie and The Kinder Morgan Foundation for Erryn • Lori Ball and FSI • Our teachers, Nick, Nathan, Abby, and Zabedah • Anna Schwabe, our research mentor • And our friends and family for supporting us being here. • THANK YOU
References Text: Arnold, M. L. (1997). Natural hybridization and evolution. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Biology animation library: Polymerase chain reaction [Animation]. (n.d.). Retrieved from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory website: http://www.dnalc.org/resources/animations/pcr.html Hanley, N., Spash, C., & Walker, L. (1995). Problems in valuing the benefits of biodiversity protection. Environmental and Resource Economics, 5, 249-27. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/u4u5366l7k126145/ Hubbell, S. P. (2001). Chapter 1. In The unified neutral theory of biodiversityand biogeography (p. 3). Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id= EIQpFBu84NoC&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&dq=biodiversity&ots=cPGNJZNyu0&sig=RXkbt4p_ 9nwTkzReWdMlhy_5ez0#v=onepage&q&f=false Recovery outline for the Colorado hookless cactus. (2010, April). Retrieved from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service website: http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/CO%20hookless%20 cactus_recovery%20outline_Apr%202010.pdf
References Text (cont.): Schwabe, A. (2011a, June 20). Sclerocactus glaucus hybridization. Reading presented at UNC Plant Population Genetics Lab, Greeley , CO. Schwabe, A. (2011b, July 19). The process of sequencing and comparing DNA. Address presented at UNC Plant Population Genetics Lab, Greely, CO. Schwabe, A., Ramp-Neale, J., & McGlaughlin, M. E. (2011, July). Analysis of nuclear DNA from S. glaucus and S. parviflorus to determine the level of directionality and hybridization between these two species. Poster session presented at Botany 2011, St Lewis, MO. Abstract retrieved from: 2011.botanyconference.org/engine/search/index.php?func=detail &aid=292 Science plan for McInnis Canyons National Conservation Area. (2010, September). Retrieved from: http://www.blm.gov/pgdata/etc/medialib/blm/co/field_offices/MCNCA/pdf.Par. 96119.File.dat/McInnis%20Canyons%20Science%20Plan.pdf Sclerocactus parviflorus. (n.d.). Retrieved from Flora of North America website: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242415288
References Text (cont.): 2011 Colorado Native Plant Society grant recipients. (2011). Retrieved from Colorado Native Plant Society website: http://www.conps.org/Committees/grants.shtml Vilà, M., Weber, E., & D’Antonio, C. M. (2000, September 13). Conservation implications of invasion by plant hybridization. Biological Invasions, 207–217. Retrieved from: http://www.montsevila.org/otherscientificpapers/Conservation%20implications.pdf Wendt, T., Canela, M. B. F., de Faria, A. P. G., & Rios, R. I. (2001, October). Reproductive biology and natural hybridization between two endemic species of Pitcairnia. American Journal of Botany. Abstract retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/pss/3558350 Pictures: http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2456/3818284347_cb609c3926.jpg http://www.botanicgardensblog.com/author/deprengm/ http://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/pink%20enlarged%20photo%20pages/sclerocactus.htm http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2108/2411882759_676e67c26a.jpg