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Option D5: Stimulants

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Option D5: Stimulants. Sohaib Hassan. Stimulants. What are stimulants? Stimulants are drugs that increase a persons state of Mental Alertness . All stimulants tend to increase concentration . But other effects vary according to the particular stimulant.

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Presentation Transcript
  • What are stimulants?
  • Stimulants are drugs that increase a persons state of Mental Alertness. All stimulants tend to increase concentration. But other effects vary according to the particular stimulant
list the physiological effects of stimulants
List the physiological effects of Stimulants
  • List of physiological effects according to different stimulants.( These will be covered as we go along)
  • Remember: All stimulants tend to increase concentration.
  • These stimulants include
  • Amphetamines
  • Epinephrine(naturally occurring adrenaline)
  • Nicotine
  • Caffeine
compare amphetamines and epinephrine adrenaline
Compare amphetamines and Epinephrine(Adrenaline)

amphetamines and Epinephrine(Adrenaline) are both chemically similar in that both are derived from the Phenylethylamine structure

The difference between these is that Amphetamines are synthetic chemicals that mimic the effects of naturally occurring Adrenaline(Epinephrine). Amphetamines are a sympathomimetic drug which mimic the effect of stimulation on the Sympathetic nervous system

how are amphetamines and epinephrine adrenaline similar
How are amphetamines and Epinephrine(Adrenaline) similar

Both amphetamines and Epinephrine(Adrenaline) are derived from the Phenylethylamine structure shown on the left

Adrenaline contains a secondary amine

Amphetamines contains a primary amine

As we can see in the images above these are the structural differences between both the stimulants shown above.


Tertiary( three- R groups attached the N atom

Secondary( two R groups attached to the N atom)

Primary (one R group attached N atom)

physiological effects of adrenaline
Physiological effects of Adrenaline
  • Adrenaline is known as the “fight or fight "hormone. It is generated by the body in the face of an extreme and immediate dangerous situation or when the body is highly charged in situations such as when we go on a rollercoaster.
  • It is important to remember however that this is generated by the body naturally in contrast to Amphetamines which are produced synthetically.
  • Some of the processes that the body undergoes because of the production of adrenaline include speeding of heart rate and increased sweat production
physiological effects of amphetamines
Physiological effects of Amphetamines
  • Amphetamines mimic the effect that Adrenaline has on the body which makes it a sympathomimetic drug which means that it mimics the effect of stimulation on the sympathetic nervous system which basically happens naturally because of Adrenaline.
  • Regular use can lead to both tolerance and dependence as Llewellyntaught us about them yesterday.
  • Short term effectsinclude increase in heart rate and breathing, dilation of pupils, decrease in appetite, followed by fatigue, and possible depression as the effects wear off.
  • Long term effects include weight loss, constipation, and emotional instability.
effects of nicotine consumption
Effects of Nicotine Consumption
  • Like amphetamines nicotine is sympathomimetic, it increases concentration and relieves tension.
  • Stopping or quitting smoking can produce temporary withdrawal effects by the body like a craving for tobacco, nausea, weight gain, insomnia irritability and depression.
  • Some of the physical short term effects include increased heart rate, and blood pressure, and reduction in urine output.
  • The Long term effects include increased risk of heart disease and coronary thrombosis.
nicotine effects continued
Nicotine effects continued

Nicotine structure

The stimulatory effects of Nicotine may also lead to the excess production of stomach acid leading to an increased risk of peptic ulcers.

Some other well known risks of smoking include chronic lung diseases, adverse side effects on pregnancy, and cancers of the mouth, lung, and throat.

  • Most widely used stimulant in the world!
  • It is present in: Coffee, Tea, Chocolate, cola drinks, painkillers, and medicines.
  • If consumed more than 400 mg a day then it can cause dependence and physical side effects.
  • Caffeine is a respiratory stimulant when consumed in large amounts it can cause: anxiety, irritability, and sleeplessness.
  • It is also a weak diuretic which means it causes frequent urination, increased alertness, concentration, and restlessness.
an interesting comparison in both nicotine and caffeine structures
An interesting comparison in both Nicotine and Caffeine structures


Both caffeine and Nicotine contain a tertiary amine group.