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Introduction to Engineering Design. Penn State RPV Border Surveillance System Engineering Project Kickoff October 12, 2005. Kickoff Agenda. Introduction to the Project Overview of project steps Modeling and Simulation CONOPS (CONcept of OPerationS) Development Requirements Development

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Introduction to engineering design

Introduction to Engineering Design

Penn State

RPV Border Surveillance System

Engineering Project Kickoff

October 12, 2005

Kickoff agenda
Kickoff Agenda

  • Introduction to the Project

  • Overview of project steps

    • Modeling and Simulation

    • CONOPS (CONcept of OPerationS) Development

    • Requirements Development

    • Concept Generation

    • Concept Development

    • Concept Presentation

  • Summary

  • Appendices & Back-up material

  • Questions and Discussion

Project statement
Project Statement

  • Problem statement:

    • Manned surveillance of borders is cost prohibitive. Fixed ground sensors, if located, can be disabled rendering them ineffective until maintained or replaced.

    • An approach to providing a reliable surveillance method for extended periods of time is required using an economical sensor suite to cover a wide variety of terrain.

  • Objective: Develop a mobile surveillance system concept for the patrol of a large border segment which detects the presence of intruders.

    • Assume that your system interfaces directly to a transmitter for relay of observations to the control center.

    • Will need to cover all types of terrain.

  • Background

    • Your team is employed by a specialty engineering firm.

    • The firm has been contracted to develop airborne surveillance concepts for border patrol.

    • The customer has awarded several contracts to competing firms and will ultimately select the best concept for a lucrative development, production, and fielding contract.

  • This is a real problem with real impact in today’s world

    • Solving it literally makes the country a safer place.

    • There are many other practical application areas for this technology.

      • Ex: Search and rescue  Hurricanes Katrina and Rita 

Project statement of work sow
Project Statement Of Work (SOW)

  • Tasks: Your firm will need to:

    • Perform a customer needs assessment based on your interpretation of the problem scope

    • Develop an initial Concept Of Operations (CONOPS)

      • The CONOPS is essential and defines how your system will actually operate.

      • Your CONOPS will evolve as your system architecture matures.

    • Develop a draft of your system specification

      • This will evolve as your system architecture develops

      • Select a sensor suite from the list of devices provided

    • Perform trade studies on the type and quantity of sensors, type and quantity of vehicles required, how the vehicles are employed, and information provided versus cost.

    • Determine payload weight, payload power required.

      • Select a battery system and determine endurance of payload system

  • Design a system using the results of the trade studies including optimal sensor placement, integration with the vehicle, etc.

  • Calculate size and mass properties of the payload

  • Develop the cost to field the system. i.e., number and type of vehicles, number of sensors, etc.

Project approach
Project Approach

  • This project will lead you through a disciplined systems engineering approach to engineering concept development

    • Perform a customer needs assessment

    • Understand the problem via hand analysis, modeling, and simulation

    • Develop the requirements for your system concept

    • Generate ideas for the border surveillance system concept

    • Refine the ideas through concept development

    • Select your best concept and develop it in detail

      • Develop your CONcept of OPerationS (CONOPS)

    • Assess your systems strengths and weaknesses

    • Sell your final idea to the customer

  • Tools you will use: Mathematics, physics, spreadsheets, brainstorming, trade studies, CAD, presentation SW

    • The tools support your creative process


*Additional Information on Project Approach is provided in Appendix


Border Patrol Requirements


  • Locate intruders crossing into your territory and report their position.

  • Determine the best method of patrolling your border segment and the number and type of vehicles employed.

    • The border segment you have to patrol is 100 kilometers in length with terrain which could consist of desert, mountains, valleys, open fields, water and forest. See definition provided on slide 12.

    • Border must be monitored 24 / 7 with no breaks in continuity for one week.

    • You must keep track of the intruder for a border crossing depth of 1 km.

    • Assume 3 intruder penetrations / 24 hrs.

  • Check out this web site for some fascinating views of surveillance work done with Navy RPV’s


Rpv history
RPV History

Kettering Aerial Torpedo, circa 1918

  • UAV  Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    • First UAV in this country was in 1863 during Civil War

      • Unmanned balloon used as a “bomber” Not truly guided, but patented

    • Ironically, almost since the beginning of powered manned flight, (1903) engineers have tried to figure out how to remove man from the cockpit.

    • Origin  Arguably the first successful UAV built in quantity was the Kettering Bug, produced as an “Aerial Torpedo” in 1918.

    • Since then UAV’s moved forward into the combat arena and the first practical use against a major target occurred during WWII when VI and VII weapons were utilized against London.

    • Today UAV’s are becoming increasing sophisticated and span the full range of technologies, finding increasing use as surveillance platforms

The Kettering Aerial Torpedo, nicknamed the "Bug",

was invented by Charles F. Kettering of Dayton. It was

developed and built by Dayton-Wright Airplane Company

in 1918 for the U.S. Army Signal Corps.

SPECIFICATIONSSpan: 14 ft. 11 1/2 in. Length: 12 ft. 6 in. Height: 4 ft. 8 in. Weight: 530 lbs. loaded Armament: 180 lbs. of high explosive Engine: One De Palma four-cylinder of 40 hp.

PERFORMANCEDesign speed: 120 mph. Range: 75 miles

Typical uav configurations
Typical UAV Configurations

AeroVironment’s Wasp < $ 0.1 M, endurance 1.2 hrs

Pioneer ≈ $ 0.9M, Endurance 5 hr

Global Hawk ≈ $ 40M, Endurance up to 35 hr

Predator ≈ $ 4M, Endurance 24 hr on station


*Additional data on UAV’s is provided in Appendix

Typical ugv unmanned ground vehicles configurations
Typical UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicles) Configurations

Mars Rovers Spirit and Opportunity

  • Other types of remote vehicles include Unmanned Ground Vehicles or UGV’s

  • Examples arguably include a pair of the most famous “twins”, Spirit and Opportunity, sponsored by JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory)

    • Both rovers have demonstrated performance well beyond expectations including recovering from unplanned performance difficulties.

  • Armed forces, police departments, and search and rescue operations now rely on ground rovers for checking out high risk scenarios.

    • Entering burning buildings to check for trapped occupants.

    • Police bomb squads for identification and disposal of ordnance.

    • Ground surveillance, USMA Dragon-Runner, lower right, for entry into hot zones and identifying occupants

Marine Corp Dragon-Runner

Uv s as small tactical surveillance platforms are here today
UV’s as Small, Tactical Surveillance Platforms Are Here Today

  • UV’s of various form factors are currently deployed in a myriad of situations in both the armed forces of the world and many civilian organizations

  • An example in current use today is the Dragoneye UAV, upper right

    • Man portable to the location needed.

    • Durable and re-usable.

    • Provides a real time picture of over the horizon terrain to decision makers for immediate action.

    • Man in the loop operation.

      • Fully autonomous versions of UV’s are available now.

  • BAE SYSTEMS produces a fully autonomous platform for surveillance

    • Capable of vertical take off and landing (VTOL) as well as hover, loiter and flight in any direction

Notional project schedule
Notional Project Schedule Today

  • Illustrated below is an example task breakdown for this project.

  • Your faculty advisor will tailor / facilitate your specific tasking and scheduling










Modeling and Simulation

CONOPS Development

Requirements Development

Concept Generation

Concept Analysis/Selection

Concept Presentation

Modeling and simulation
Modeling and Simulation Today










Modeling and Simulation

  • Outputs

  • Parametric planar vehicle model

    • Sensor coverage using defined FOV

    • Battery / Power requirements def.

  • Physical understanding of problem

CONOPS development

Requirements development

  • Inputs

  • UAV/UGV Background Info

  • Sensor Information

  • Battery Information

  • Modeling approach

  • Modeling equations

  • Model inputs (constants)

  • Self-check tools

Concept Generation

Concept Analysis/Selection

Concept Presentation

Modeling and simulation scenario
Modeling and Simulation Scenario Today

2.0 km


0.50 km


0.10 km

10 km

25 km

27 km

50 km

55 km

75 km

80 km

100 km

  • Apply Newtonian physics to develop a mathematical, parametric model of the UV patrol approach over the terrain

    • Kinematics is the general class of physics that will be applied

  • Modeling Objectives:

    • Determine optimal operational altitude, flight speed, ground or water track, and sensor placement on aircraft in order to maximize coverage.

      • Your CONOPS will be critical to the modeling and may change / evolve based upon your results

    • Gain a physical understanding of the sensor coverage requirements and flight / ground / boat requirements imposed on your vehicle as well as the number of vehicles required to cover the terrain.

Note: Example shown is for a UAV based system. Your

system will be different based on sensor, platform, CONOPS


Hint: approximate your

terrain model as a set of

straight line segments then define

your flight path and number of

vehicles required

0.35 km



Mathematical modeling
Mathematical modeling Today

  • Develop model using kinematics equations,constants, variables, and desired outputs


  • Values that will not change for the model

    • Border terrain

    • Intruder parameters

    • Vehicle max acceleration

  • Provided in Appendix


  • Values that you will determine via the model

    • Quantity of vehicles required, sensor type employed, battery capacity / type.

  • Will be determined as a function of the input variables

    • i.e. Flight profile vs. time, velocity, acceleration, flyout time vs. range, ground speed / track boat speed, etc.



  • Kinematics equations provided in Appendix



  • Values that you will vary over a range to determine flyout times

    • Altitude, cruise velocity, loiter time, etc.

    • Cruising speed (boat)

    • Ground speed / maneuverability

    • Number of vehicles required

    • Intruder motion

  • Provided in Appendix


Model development
Model development Today

“What I cannot create, I do not understand.”— Richard Feynman, theoretical physicist

  • Step 1: Work the problem a few times

    by hand

    • Treat it like a homework assignment

    • For example: How many UV’s are required to patrol the border? What coverage do they provide, what type of sensor overlap is required, are you going to mix UV types to optimize coverage, does the total system meet your cost expectations?

      • How will I model the system to verify performance?

    • Make sure that the relationships make sense in terms of your trade space.

  • Step 2: Put the equations (or assumptions) into a computer tool so you can vary the inputs over a range and plot relationships

    • Tools: Custom computer program, Excel, MatLab, MathCad, etc.

    • Now the variables become ranges of values

    • The “answer” is the plotted relationships and a physical understanding of the surveillance dynamics


*Additional suggestions to Model development are provided in Appendix

Sample preliminary hand analysis
Sample Preliminary Hand Analysis Today

2.0 km

2.0 km





0.50 km

0.50 km

0.35 km

0.35 km





0.10 km

0.10 km

100 km

100 km

10 km

10 km

25 km

25 km

50 km

50 km

75 km

75 km

27 km

27 km

80 km

80 km

55 km

55 km

CONOPS 1 orbit

high altitude (Yellow solid)

CONOPS 2 Terrain following

Low altitude (Red dash)

  • Consider a flight based solution:

  • Need to calculate number of UAV’s required and basic range / altitude requirements

  • Simple geometric approximations will suffice

  • Remember complexities may be subtle

    • For example, suppose you chose a really inexpensive MAV (Micro-Air Vehicle) which flies @ a 100 ft altitude (relative to ground, refer to CONOPS 2), how do you cover both sides of the mountain?

    • Clearly the trajectory (and resulting range requirements), can no longer be approximated as a straight line segment as in CONOPS 1 and must be segmented and computed in pieces using simple geometric relationships.

  • During your model build up remember:

    • This is tied directly to your CONOPS

      • May consider multiple types of UAV’s to solve problem

    • Must consider intruder parameters

    • Use model to determine type, quantity, range, speed of UAV’s to monitor border

Original Terrain

Discretized terrain, black, solid


*Additional information on sample model outputs are provided in Appendix


*Tips on model/simulation are provided in Appendix

Conops development
CONOPS Development Today










Modeling and Simulation

  • Outputs

  • Definition of your approach for system operation

  • Preliminary list of required operational capabilities

CONOPS Development

Requirements development

  • Inputs

  • Surveillance equipment parameters

  • Vehicle parameters

  • Surveillance approach concept

  • Brainstorming technique resource

Concept Generation

Concept Analysis/Selection

Concept Presentation

Requirements development
Requirements Development Today










Modeling and Simulation

  • Outputs

  • Tables/graphs

  • Response performance for given intruder scenario

CONOPS Development

Requirements Development

Concept Generation

  • Inputs

  • UV Operational Parameters

  • Intruder scenarios

  • Sensor parameters

Concept Development

Concept Presentation

Development process

The customer is primarily concerned with 4 major intruder penetration scenarios

These are the threats that your surveillance must detect and monitor

Developing the timeline requirements means filling in this table using your model

Development Process


Target Size (m)



Border Crossing Time At Given Intercept Range



(L x W x H)

(Border width = 1 km)

Intercept Distance From Border Crossing (m)









0.75 x 0.40 x 1.80





x 1.00 x 4.00




1.90 x 1.25 x 1.60




9.20 x 3.00 x 1.22



  • Outputs:

    • Show Range of Times to Respond by using Table/Graph


*Tips on development process (e.g. establishing surveillance system timeline) are provided in Appendix

Concept generation
Concept Generation penetration scenarios










Modeling and Simulation

  • Outputs

  • Complete list of brainstormed surveillance concepts (25+ items)

  • Initial refinement of list (~5 items)

CONOPS Development

Requirements Development

Concept Generation

  • Inputs

  • Response-time/range requirements for UV

  • Brainstorming technique resources

  • Surveillance equipment and timelines

Concept Development

Concept Presentation

Your job
Your Job! penetration scenarios

Options for this are provided by customer

Not part of your Timeline

  • Customer has specified a variety of surveillance sensors for your use

    • Can be used in any quantity and configuration at the expense of cost, size, weight and power

    • See Appendix for sensor system selection guidelines

    • See Appendix for sensor parameter information

    • See Appendix for battery parameter information

  • Your job is to come up with the actual intruder detection system approach and concept of operations

  • Basic intruder model is applicable to all types of engagements

  • Monitor border

  • Detect & Issue Warning

  • Develop intruder Track

  • Calculate time to cross border

  • Assess Next Action




Engineering creativity
Engineering Creativity penetration scenarios

  • Apply group creative techniques to develop a rich set of possible solutions

    • See resource material on brainstorming and other creative techniques, Appendix

“The way to get good ideas is to get lots of ideas and throw the bad ones away.”— Linus Pauling, chemist Nobel Prize Winner


  • Session 1: Develop a large set of possible solutions (25+). At this point, don’t critique - just record the ideas.

  • Session 2: Cull the list down to 4 or 5 solutions as a group

    • Use your understanding of the engagement to eliminate the weakest solutions

  • Tip: Consider the type of detect/cueing sensor(s) that will be needed for each surveillance system concept (i.e. a very cheap simple sensor may require a vast number of vehicles but may still be less expensive than fielding a Global Hawk based approach.)

Food for thought
Food for Thought ... penetration scenarios

  • Based on an initial assessment of the intruder threat, areas subject to exploitation include:

  • Low velocity  0.75 - 34 m/sec typical

  • Relatively large target profile

    • Your target is non-maneuvering  assume a straight line across border

  • Terrain

    • Will prove an obstacle

    • Must consider shadowing, view factors, etc.

  • Think about potential system vulnerabilities

    • A countermeasure may be as simple as the intruder maneuvering

    • Perhaps calculating the time for the intruder to move from point A to B or to turn versus engagement geometry and your UV kinematics would provide insight into vehicle velocity and timing requirements.

  • Trajectory

    • Your chosen vehicle motion profile must be fully integrated with your sensor suite.

    • You can use multiple UV types to perform the surveillance mission.

      • Perhaps a mix of high altitude surveillance with a mother ship that releases expendable MAV born sensors to monitor identified intruders coupled with a ground based patrolling vehicle.

  • Remember that the threat is prolific.

    • The system may have to counter more than one intruder at a time so think about parameters like volume, integration onto the vehicle, kinematic performance and numbers required.

    • This is a semi-commercial application.

      • It needs to be somewhat affordable.

      • Think about potential commercial uses. ex., plant protection, environmental monitoring, search and rescue, etc.

Concept development
Concept Development penetration scenarios










Modeling and Simulation

  • Outputs

  • Selected surveillance system approach

  • Rationale for selection

  • Analysis of performance

  • Sketches/description of concept

CONOPS Development

Requirements Development

  • Inputs

  • Short list of candidates

  • Trade study technique resources

  • Model/analysis tools

  • CAD resources

Concept Generation

Concept Development

Concept Presentation

Engineering selection
Engineering Selection penetration scenarios

  • Selection of the optimal surveillance system requires that you further develop each idea on the “short list”

  • Further development should focus on answering the key questions

    • Will it be effective?

    • How big will it be, what will it weigh, how much power does it take?

    • What type and quantity of sensors are required?

    • How much will it cost?

    • Is it feasible?

  • Use CAD to sketch your concepts and “visualize” installation

  • Use your model (possibly with modifications) to determine the effectiveness

Trade studies
Trade Studies penetration scenarios

  • Once you have sufficiently developed the alternatives, conduct an engineering trade study to select the optimal approach

    • Trade studies promote objective review and selection of the best alternative

    • Frequently used in industry

    • See online resources regarding engineering trade studies, Appendix

  • Potential trade study criteria

    • Physical

      • Power, weight, size

    • Feasibility

      • Unique technical challenges

    • Cost

    • Performance

      • How many of the threat engagement scenarios are defeated?


“Out of clutter, find simplicity. From discord, find harmony. In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity.” — Albert Einstein

Sample cm technique trade study
Sample CM Technique Trade Study penetration scenarios

  • Approach: Monitor border using a high altitude reconnaissance UAV:

    • See entire border form high altitude.

    • Minimize maneuverability.

    • Maximize time on station.

  • Possible sensor options compatible with high altitude mission:

Concept presentation
Concept Presentation penetration scenarios










Modeling and Simulation

  • Outputs

  • Self-assessment

  • Customer briefing

  • Marketing Brochure

CONOPS Development

Requirements Development

Concept Generation

  • Inputs

  • Selected concept design

  • Self-assessment techniques

  • Sample Customer briefing and marketing brochure

Concept Development

Concept Presentation

Final deliverables
Final Deliverables penetration scenarios

  • Final design briefing

    • This is your opportunity to “sell” your concept to your customer

    • Walk them through your whole process, present your chosen concept in detail

      • Will require further CAD work and refinement

      • Physical models are an option

    • The briefing should answer the customers questions, see Appendix

  • Brochure

    • Develop a fold-out brochure for your customer to take with them

    • Example brochures will be provided

  • Remember: thorough engineering + solid presentation = SOLD! Anticipate issues your customer may have - incorporate risk mitigation factors into your design briefing. See Appendix



Summary penetration scenarios

  • You will use the systems engineering techniques presented to propose a solution to a significant, real-world problem

    • You will use many relevant engineering tools and techniques to facilitate your creative process

  • This briefing provides a kickoff, links, some buried hints, and a framework for the project

    • Refer to it and the other course material frequently

  • A few tips:

    • Take it one step at a time, focus on what’s currently due

    • You will probably start to have concept ideas immediately, write them down, keep your mind open

Appendix penetration scenarios

A 1 additional info on approach
A-1: Additional Info on Approach penetration scenarios

  • The Goal is to determine a way to perform the following:

    • Design a system which:

      • Detects the presence of intruders crossing into your territory. (Options given.)

      • Determine how much time is available to react. (Analysis, modeling and simulation.)

      • Determine the proper number and type of vehicles to employ. (Design.)

        • Based on your calculations of the UV kinematic profile required, sensor coverage, battery duration, and effective time on station.

      • Determine if the system concept was effective. (Assessment.)

      • Develop a marketing brochure which highlights specific features of the design approach using a CAD model of the system.

        • Include a statement of system effectiveness in intruder detection and surveillance.

  • The system design should use building blocks provided for specific functions such as intruder detection and surveillance.

    • Concentrate on the actual system design.

      • Hint: Timing and field of view are going to be key parameters so focusing on calculating parameters related to:

        • UV motion path

          • If the UV maintains a certain path, can it detect intruders and monitor over a wide enough swath or must multiple UV’s be utilized to close the entire border section.

          • If the UV detects an intruder and monitors that intruder successfully, how will the rest of the border be monitored? Is this a possible technique to negate your systems effectiveness? (i.e., have you thought about decoys? Is this a weakness which can be exploited?)

        • Time to go, i.e., how long from detection to border crossing? This timeline will define the system response requirements that must be met.

        • A countermeasure to your system may be as simple as the intruder maneuvering.

          • Perhaps calculating the time for the intruder to move from point A to B or to turn versus engagement geometry and time of motion of the UV needs to be evaluated.

    • Remember that border intrusions can be en-mass.

      • The system may have to detect and monitor more than one intruder at a time so think about parameters like field of view, integration onto the UV, motion path, etc.

      • This is a large scale application.

        • It needs to be somewhat affordable as there may be many vehicles required to protect the border area.

A 2 example existing uav types
A-2: Example Existing UAV Types penetration scenarios

  • Color Key:

  • Yellow, small category UAV’s, Black Widow classified as MAV, span ≤ 0.5 ft

  • Blue, medium UAV’s based on range, size, and payload

  • Green, large UAV’s

A 3 defined constants
A-3: Defined Constants penetration scenarios

2.0 km



0.50 km


0.35 km


0.10 km

25 km

27 km

55 km

80 km

10 km

75 km

50 km

100 km

  • Border terrain, depicted above, 1 km wide

  • Intruder parameters on slide 18, only consider these 4 types.

  • Standard day conditions (density, temperature, pressure)

  • Assume intruder is stationary at time of initial detection.

    • Intruder is then free to move at constant velocity to cross border

    • Consider only maximum and minimum velocity when target is in motion.

  • Remember to convert dimensions so they are consistent

A 4 variables
A-4: Variables penetration scenarios

Trajectory A, high altitude, observation

2.0 km

Trajectory B, Low altitude, terrain following



0.50 km


0.35 km


0.10 km

25 km

27 km

55 km

80 km

10 km

75 km

50 km

100 km

  • UAV flight parameters are all variable

    • Forward velocity

    • Flight path

    • Altitude

    • Ascent / descent predicated upon your UAV concept chosen

      • Remember that helicopters (VTOL) can be UAV’s also

  • Mix/Qty. of UAV’s can be tailored to your CONOPS

  • Quantity and type of sensors carried by the various UAV’s comprising your system

  • UGV kinematic parameters are similarly variable.

  • Recommend parametrically varying each of these parameters  10% while holding the others constant in order to assess the effect on your system design.

A 5 helpful equations
A-5: Helpful Equations penetration scenarios




  • The following may prove useful and are basic planar equations of motion found in your physics text:

    Vx = Vx0 + axt

    Vy = Vy0 + ayt

    X = X0 + Vx0t + ½ axt2

    Y = Y0 + VY0t + ½ aYt2

    C = (a2 + b2)1/2

     = tan-1(a/b)

  • Notes:

  • Limit UV acceleration to +2 / -1 g’s

  • Consider only planar geometry

  • Do not forget to account for gravity in your acceleration term

  • Use Euclidian geometry to discretize terrain

A 6 suggestions to model development
A-6: Suggestions to Model Development penetration scenarios

  • In order to calculate the UV trajectory, the equations (provided in A-5) may be used in a simple commercial software (such as Excel, MatLab, MathCad, Fortran, or C) to calculate all necessary geometry and timing parameters associated with the UV motion.

    • Once the basic simulation is running, the equations can be further built up and more can be added to model any specific surveillance approach to include, for example:

      • Effect of UAV relative height for an airborne system.

      • Effect of intruder motion.

      • Timing studies to optimize number of UV’s and sensors.

  • The basic equations provided can be modified to include the target and can be run parametrically (automated using user defined rule set) until the desired UV operational profile and mix of assets is achieved.

A 7 sample model outputs continued
A-7: Sample Model Outputs (Continued) penetration scenarios

Sensor mounted

Location on UAV

Flight Path Calculation

UAV Flight path

S1 = ((8.0)2 + (2.2 – 0.2)2)1/2 = 8.24 km

S2 = (12.0 – 8.0) = 4.00 km

200 m

S3 = ((27.0 – 12.0)2 + (2.2 – 0.55)2)1/2 = 15.09 km

Azimuth =   radians

S4 = (75.0 – 27.0) = 48.00 km

S5 = ((80.0-75.0)2 + (0.70 – 0.55)2)1/2 = 5.002 km

S6 = (100.0 – 80.0) = 20.00 km

Elevation =  π/3 radians

Total = 100.33 km

  • Consider first a single airborne IR camera sensor

    H = 200 meter offset

    FOV = 0.14 radians (from sensor table)

    V = 50 m/s

  • Step 1: Calculate flight path (right) & check against model

  • Step 2: Calculate time of flight for 1 pass using calculated flight path

    Tf = 100.33 km * 1000 m/km *1/50(m/sec) = 2006 sec = 33.4 min

  • Step 3: Examine sensor field of view implications for your planned trajectory:

  • Ask yourself, what does this tell me?

    • Ex: Spatial gaps during flight due to timing must be filled through addition of multiple flight vehicles

  • Remember, your model must match your hand calculations

Example; Discritization of Border


Cross Range (m)

Initial UAV Flight Profile


Down Range (m)


UAV Trajectory


Altitude (m)










Down Range (m)









Down range coverage calculation

DR = 2*200*sin(1.0472) = 346 meters

Full azimuthal (cross range) coverage

A 8 tips on model simulation
A-8: Tips on Model/Simulation penetration scenarios

  • If your code is running correctly, the kinematic path, timing, and sensor coverage vs. time can now be determined.

    • The simulation can also be used to perform trade studies designed to optimize your system design and response.

  • In order to check the code, try calculating the time of flight by setting the altitude to a constant for the UAV and comparing the X, Y, and time of flight to cover the course. This should match your hand calculations.

    • Then set the altitude offset to a constant value and check to see if the results are very similar.

  • An additional suggested check of the simulation is to verify that the units of all calculations are consistent and the results are expressed correctly.

    • Use dimensional analysis for this.

  • At the conclusion of the modeling and simulation stage of the project, the following questions and milestones should be met:

    • A simple, X-Y plane, parametric model of the UV trajectory enabling physical trade studies to be performed should be available.

  • Given that the detection of the intruder is assured: (i.e., zero false alarm rate.)

    • Based on selection of the surveillance sensors, what is the time line for intercept, track, and monitor for an individual intruder while monitoring the border and allowing the intruder to move once detected?

      • Suggestion: use timing chart supplied as a template and fill in using data generated with model.

  • Determine if surveillance of the intruder is feasible.

    • If so, what is required in terms of system response time.

      • i.e., what is the functional time allocation to the various parts of the system design.

      • Do you need more than a single type of sensor?

        • What type of accuracy is needed and what is the cost impact?

A 9 basics of surveillance system timeline
A-9: Basics of Surveillance System Timeline penetration scenarios

  • In order to design an effective surveillance system, an understanding of basic functional requirements, for example timing, is required.

    • Typical time from detection to border crossing for intruder specified ranges between ? and ? seconds for the proposed border geometry

    • Preliminary allocation of time line based on a threshold value of ? sec and a goal of ? sec can be used to estimate approach viability / develop functional requirements.

      Function Threshold Goal

      Detect & declare intruder --------- ----

      Monitor Track --------- ----

      Calculate time to cross completion --------- ----

      [Assess Next Action] Leave out of timeline, but consider

      implications of next actions, e.g. acquire and track a second intruder.

A 10 surveillance system guidelines
A-10: Surveillance System Guidelines penetration scenarios

  • The chart in Appendix A-11 provides data on potential surveillance systems available to you as the designer.

  • Assume that the following functions are performed by any of the system options given on the chart. The system will:

    • Identify and calculate direction of intruder within limits prescribed.

    • Issues warning of intruder and sends message to your command post.

    • Ideal false alarm rate  Pfa = 0.0

    • Cost includes integrated electronics to fuse sensor, ID function, and transmitter.

  • Rules:

    • For RADAR and IR Sensor: better angular accuracy, if required, can be achieved with addition of more sensors (electronics) at increased cost and volume. Assume 15% increase in $, 10% increase in weight, & 2x sensors qty for each 1/2 increment in angular accuracy. Assume no penalty in detection time or track development due to internal system architecture.

    • Use of multiple sensor types is allowed.

    • Acoustic sensors do not provide bearing to intruder, only presence in hemisphere defined by diameter equivalent to maximum detection range.

    • Increasing the scanned area by the LIDAR requires the addition of multiple units at a 1/1 cost, weight, and volume penalty for each unit employed.

    • UV Sensors provide hemispherical coverage at the elevation angle defined.

A 11b battery data provided by customer
A-11b: Battery Data Provided by Customer penetration scenarios

Hyperlinks to sensor data:

A 12 creativity resources
A-12: Creativity Resources penetration scenarios

  • Some web resources on creative techniques


      • A comprehensive tutorial on brainstorming and other creative techniques


      • A pragmatic summary of how to setup and run a brainstorming session


      • A free trial download of a brainstorming and selection facilitation program

“To have a great idea, have a lot of them.”

— Thomas A. Edison

A 13 trade study examples
A-13: Trade Study Examples penetration scenarios

  • Trade study examples on the web


      • A very detailed look at the systems engineering process and at conducting trade studies (Starts on line 27)


      • A presentation of a simple CAIV (Cost As an Independent Variable) trade study, a lot of acronyms, most of the good stuff starts on pg 8

A 14 key customer questions
A-14: Key customer questions penetration scenarios

  • Key Customer questions

    • How did you arrive at your timeline and what is it

      • Simplifying assumptions you made; why are they valid

    • What was your creative process

      • Present all of your brainstormed ideas and the context of your brainstorming session

    • Why did you select the chosen design

      • Present results of trade study

    • Provide evidence that the concept is effective

      • Which border crossing scenarios can be met successfully

      • Which one’s present risk

    • Is your solution realizable, affordable, realistic

    • Can your surveillance system engage more than one intruder simultaneously

    • Are there any safety related effects from your surveillance system design, for example, LIDAR eye safety?

      • Human life, property

      • What ethical issues have been considered

    • How long from start to develop and field your solution

    • Will it work in a range of outdoor environments

      • hot, cold, snow, sand, rain, etc.

A 15 assessing your offering
A-15: Assessing Your Offering penetration scenarios

You will need to perform a critical self-assessment of your offering -

before your customer does. Here are some questions to consider:

  • Available technologies.

    • What type of technologies can be utilized? need to be utilized?

      • Does it exist and how can it be adapted to this problem?

  • Enabling technologies requiring further development

    • What needs to be invented?

      • Is it physically possible?

      • Cost prohibitive?

  • What is the system configuration?

    • Is it compatible with the intended user.

      • Size, cost, etc.

  • Does the system specified meet the goal of detecting the target?