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Introduction to Engineering Design. Bo Hu John Nieber. Foundational Questions. What is an engineer? What is engineering design? Difference between engineering analysis and engineering design What is the difference between product and process design?

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Introduction to Engineering Design

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    1. Introduction to Engineering Design Bo Hu John Nieber

    2. Foundational Questions What is an engineer? What is engineering design? Difference between engineering analysis and engineering design What is the difference between product and process design? What is the context of the design process? Engineering design vs. design in other academic disciplines? Why design?

    3. What is engineering? “…the purposive adaptation of means to reach a pre-conceived end…” E.T. Layton, Jr. “Technological activity to solve problems”

    4. Engineering as a “Thinking-Making” Activity Human creativity The use of technology to make products and systems for societal benefit.

    5. Historical Questions What role of engineers in history? Irrigation and farming equipment, dam projects, water and wind mills building construction, the Pyramids, the Great Wall, Leonardo’s contraptions, the printing press, the Wright brothers’ aircraft, fermented beverages, nuclear power, the Space Shuttle, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, electric appliances, petroleum products, pharmaceuticals. When did the engineering disciplines begin? 3000 BC Civil 1000 BC Military AD 1700 Mechanical AD 1800 Materials Agricultural Electrical AD 1900 Chemical Aerospace AD 1950 Computer, Nuclear, Biochemical Biomedical [ Holtzapple, M. T., Reece, W. D. (2005) ]

    6. Product Realization Process (PRP) • Engineering design • Industrial design • Production planning • Manufacturing • Distribution • Sales • Marketing • Service • Disposal • Environmental assessment • Stakeholder involvement • Engineering design • Construction planning • Construction • Effectiveness monitoring, control, and maintenance

    7. Engineering as Problem Solving Problem solution Orderly stepwise approach Problem identification Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Solution Qualitative/general  quantitative/detailed [ Holtzapple, M. T., Reece, W. D. (2005) ]

    8. Process of Engineering Math Think Think Politics Analysis Sketch Sketch Physics Law Make Make Chemistry Show Show Ethics Use Use Biology Environmental Economy

    9. Need Analysis of Problem Statement of Problem Brainstorming Rule : There are no stupid ideas in a brainstorm Conceptual Design Selected Schemes Embodiment of Schemes Detailing Working drawings, etc.. Process of Engineering [ Ferguson, E. S. , (1992) ]

    10. What is a product or process? Object produced, substance, material, arrangement, service, step sequence, manufactured good, transformation of something, system, organization. Example 1 : Water bottle made of biodegradable plastic Example 2 : Biorefinery for ethanol production from biomass Example 3 : Bio-repellant coatings Example 4 : Flood control structures Example 5: Contaminant/pollutant removal systems Example 6: Structures for wildlife migration

    11. Examples in bio-based products Materials and Chemicals - Wood - Wood-based - Paper - Biodiesel fuel - Bio-based plastics - Biodegradable plastics (e.g. drink bottles) - Ethanol (bio-based) - -

    12. Examples in bioprocessing Utilization of living cells or their components to obtain desired products - Ethanol fermentation from corn - Antibody production via fungal fermentation - Anaerobic digestion to treat wastewater - Biodegradable plastics (e.g. PLA) production from corn - Enzymatic hydrolysis to produce sugar from cellulose - -

    13. What is engineering design? • Engineering design is the set of decision-making processes and activities used determine the form of an object given the functions desired by the customer. (Gov of MA) • Engineering design is the process of devising a system, component, or process to meet desired needs. It is a decision-making process (often iterative), in which the basic science and mathematics and engineering sciences are applied to convert resources optimally to meet a stated objective. Among the fundamental elements of the design process are the establishment of objectives and criteria, synthesis, analysis, construction, testing and evaluation. (ABET)

    14. Context of Design Historical Precedents Cosmological Government Global Regional Non-profit NGO’s State Military City Biology Industry Ward Chemistry Commercial House Physics Family Mathematics Person Bodypart Organ Cell Organelle Molecular Ideal Society Projections Atomic

    15. Product Design • New products are critical for corporate prosperity • Approximately 33% of revenues come from products that did not sell 5 years ago • Successful new products are profitable – Median achieve 33% ROI or better – Median have payback of 2 years or less – Median achieve market share of 35% • Significant R&D expenditures and investment

    16. Manufacturing of Chemical Products

    17. Process Engineering Design

    18. Environmental Design • Changing human needs mean the need for the design of new infrastructures • Design with a focus on natural processes • Designs should mimic nature – i.e., self-adaptive, self-sustaining, and resilient

    19. Engineering Design vs Engineering Analysis • Engineering analysis: Predicted behavior is the solution to an analysis problem • Formulating • Solving • Checking • Engineering design: • Formulating • Generating • Analyzing • Evaluating

    20. Design Step

    21. Process of Engineering Map [ SSL (2004) ]

    22. Process of Engineering (cont.) Map [ SSL (2004) ]

    23. Utility and cost Single and multi-functionality Batch or mass production Patents Aesthetics Integrity of product (wholeness) Whole life-cycle planning Health effects and safety Recycling and disposal End of product life and replacement issues Failure modes Effects on society Issues in design

    24. Ethical issues design Philosophical and practical ethics Codes of Ethics - Health and welfare of humans and nature - Informing client/employers of consequences - Statements and information in truthful manner - Treating people fairly (avoiding conflict of interest) - Limits of professional competence - Building professional reputations according to merits - Continuing professional development - Issues with intellectual property. Issues Life systems preservation Maintenance of quality of life Maintaining high standards of personal and professional conduct Managing intra-professional customs, identifiers, habits, and limits. [ SSL (2004) ]

    25. Economic analysis What is the relevance of economic analysis to design? Economic assumption : Measure of value is “monetary” Process cost in context of the company Reporting costs, financial status, and transactions. Value today, value tomorrow. Material cost, labour cost, indirect cost Manufacturing cost, storage cost, transport cost Product cost scaling and correction factors

    26. Statistical analysis What relevance is statistics to design? Statistical focus : “The one and the many” Measures of central tendency Measures of variation Probability Uncertainty analysis Linear regression Six sigma quality concept Optimization and development of designs Statistics in process control for quality

    27. AspenTech HYSYS Modeling Code Menu driven, Mouse driven. Flowsheets, Modular units. Mixers, Reactors, Flash separators, Distillation units, Heat exchangers. Reaction databases. Chemical property calculations. Species, Mass, Momentum, Heat Balances. Equipment Sizing. Economic calculations. Optimization.

    28. CAD, MAPWindow/ArcGIS, WAM, HEC-RAS • CAD – develop engineering drawings • MAPWindow/ArcGIS – work with mapping systems for various geographical analyses • WAM – one of many models for watershed assessments • HEC-RAS – a model for water flow in open channels Notes of S. Takagaki, H. P. Huang, S. Ramaswamy

    29. Minnesota context Products from Minnesota Sources : Inventing Tomorrow Magazine

    30. Minnesota context Environmental analysis and design; Assessment of impaired waters – water quality Wetland loss mitigation Stormwater control and mitigation Drainage of lands for food production and development Liquid and solid waste treatment

    31. References deCamp, L. Sprague, (1963) The Ancient Engineers, Bantam books Ferguson, E. S. , (1992) Engineering and the Mind’s Eye, MIT Press, Cambridge. Cussler, E.L., Moggridge, G.D. (2001) Chemical Product Design, MIT Press, Cambridge Holtzapple, M. T., Reece, W. D. (2008) Concepts in Engineering, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill. also Holtzapple, M. T., Reece, W. D. (2005) Concepts in Engineering, McGraw-Hill. Kangas, P.C., Ecological Engineering, Principles and Practice, Lewis Publishers, 2004 Ogot, M. G. Okudan-Kremer, Engineering design: a practical guide, Togo Press, LLC. 2004, 544 pages. Seider, W. D., Seader, J. D., Lewin, D. R. (2004) Product and Process Design Principles, Second Edition, Wiley. Smith, R. (2005) Chemical Process, Wiley.

    32. Assignment 1 – Bioproducts and bioprocessing students Search through issues of “Inventing Tomorrow” for articles on product and process design. Read and make notes, especially those related to bio-based products and processes. List your favorite three examples and explain their design process, for example: what is the problem? What are the alternative solutions? Why they choose the one and how do they do that? Find library resources related to chemical and physical properties. find the flash point of ethyl alcohol and propylene - CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics - Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook. Find (free) websites which catalog Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and find an entry for isopropyl alcohol and propylene. Also check other safety data archives esp. governmental.

    33. Assignment 1 – EEE students Search through issues of “Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers” , “Applied Engineering in Agriculture” , and “Journal of Ecological Engineering” for articles on the design of systems for water quality improvement, flood control, etc. Read the abstracts for these articles and make notes. List your favorite three examples. Find website resources related to chemical and physical properties of soils, geological materials, and water. Go to the MnDNR website to find out about the waters of the state. Find out how many lakes and miles of rivers/streams we have in Minnesota. How much is the mean annual precipitation, and how much of the water flows out of the state? How many of the waters of the state are known to be impaired (see MPCA website,