Age of Diplomacy • Will govern by accord, diplomatic balance of power within Europe. • Decides to restore order in the old, conservative ways – with KINGS. • No wars between the states of Europe • Promotion of national interests • WHAT IS NATIONALISM? How do you get people behind it?
European Imperialism • Imperialism becomes intricately tied to Nationalism both economically and politically. • An expression of a nation’s wealth and influence • Furthering the previous colonial interests to supply raw goods for production of finished goods through industrialization. • Primary areas: Africa, Asia, Latin America
Imperial Problems • German and Italian Unification in the 1860-70s. • Attempts to control the rate of change and prevent political upheaval. • Nationalism fuels unification through “non-wars.” • Franco-Prussian War, Austrian-Prussian War. • Crimean War 1855
Concerns over Russia’s expansion in Crimean War (1855) • Declining Ottoman Empire, including SE Europe. • Access to Mediterranean • Shift of balance of power • Fr & Eng. Help the Ottomans AGAINST Russia
Opening of Suez Canal, 1869 French English venture for access to the Red Sea from Mediterranean; crucial for access to Asia by Europe. akg-images
Congress of Berlin 1872 • Gathered to apportion the empires of Europe • Competition for colonies among non-empires sets up alliances for WW I • Otto von Bismarck sets up this conference to try to deal with • Partitioning of Africa • Decline of the Ottoman Empire • Territories in Asia • Stop expansion of Russia
Ottoman Empire declines over several centuries • Attempts to save by reforming Sultans over the 19th century • Major Problems: • Provincial structure, unruly army (Janissaries) • Economic threat from European industrialization as well as colonial interests • Some Ottoman provinces resist colonization by Europeans. • Egypt is critical to England’s overseas trade. • Egypt is semi-autonomous, under governer Muhammad Ali (after napoleon)
Selim III Tried to initiate reforms of Ottoman military Killed in coup d’etat in1806.
Muhammad Ali Born: Macedonia, 1769 Led Albanian contingent against Napoleon: 1799 Granted title of Pasha and made governor of Egypt: 1805 Conquered Sudan: 1822-1823 Put down insurrection in Crete: 1824 Conquered Ottoman provinces of Palestine, Syria: 1831 Treaty of London denies Ali rule over Levant but forces emperor to recognize Ali’s dynastic rule over Egypt Died: 1849
Mahmud II Born: 1785 Became Sultan: 1808 Abolished Jannisaries: 1826 Initiated Tanzimat reforms: 1839 Died: 1839
Young Turks • Calls for a new Ottoman constitution • 1876: radicals seize power and force Sultan Abdul Hamid II to grant constitution • Hamid then suspended the constitution and ruled without parliament • Committee/Society of Union and Progress formed in 1889 • Wanted restoration of constitutional rule
I Europe in 1914 at the outbreak of war
Russia at the end of the 19th century • Autocratic, antiquated military, under-industrialized. • Sergei Witte urged Nicholas II to accelerate industry, refused. • 1905 Russo-Japanese War, navy destroyed • Shocking blow; the “last war” had been the Napoleonic, which the Russians “won” against Nap. • Little social reform since liberation of serfs 1861 • No constitution under Nicholas II • Finally forced to call the Duma in 1905, disbands shortly thereafter (aborted revolution)
Romanov Dynasty Russia enters WW I as part of the Triple Entente (England, Russia, France) against Germany, Italy and Austro-Hungary After 3 years and massive destruction, Bolshevik Revolution breaks out at home; Russia forced to withdraw. Romanov family exiled, later killed.
Treaty of Brest Litovsk • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk gets Russia out of the war; tremendous losses to Russia. • Most of western lands that were industrialized, natural resources, agricultural lands.
Western Front WW I • War continues on western front for another year. • Trench Warfare • Technology of war • Tremendous losses to all • Attrition • Collapse in 1918, Treaty of Versailles • Act 231 = War Guilt Clause to Germany