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A Scalable Internet Architecture. Nirmala Shenoy, Victor Perotti, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) Technical and socioeconomic studies Koushik Kar, Aparna Gupta Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) Technical and business studies Murat Yuksel University of Nevada, Reno (UNR)

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a scalable internet architecture

A Scalable Internet Architecture

Nirmala Shenoy, Victor Perotti,

Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT)

Technical and socioeconomic studies

Koushik Kar, Aparna Gupta

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

Technical and business studies

Murat Yuksel

University of Nevada, Reno (UNR)

Technical studies

introduction
Introduction
  • Small Grants Exploratory Research (SGER)
    • High risk research idea
      • Revolutionary design to a clean slate future Internet
      • But – based on well proven concepts

OUTCOMES

a scalable internet architecture1
A Scalable Internet Architecture
  • Technical
      • Architectural studies – includes addressing, protocols
      • Support for wireless networks and roaming users
    • Transition
  • Socioeconomic & Business impacts
      • Stakeholder incentives
    • Transition
  • 6 months into the new grant
technical questions
Technical Questions

Addressing

  • Do we need 2 addresses? Logical and Physical

Observation – global Logical addresses - look up and extensive routing

  • 32 not enough, 128 not wireless friendly

Flexible - tailored to requirement, easy transition

  • Current Internet – optimize on meshing

When to mesh and how much?

Combination of hierarchy and mesh structures

  • Given above- relook at the protocol stack?

Topological consideration

Protocols

The above should be ISP friendly. Easy transition

architectural studies

Architectural studies

Addressing

Structural topology

Wireless networks support

addressing in the isp topology
Addressing in the ISP topology

High level

Typical -

Tier 1

BB1

One POP

BB2

BB3

CLOUD

CLOUD

CLOUD

Tier 2

DR1

DR4

DR2

DR3

Tier 3

AR1

AR4

AR2

AR3

RPI

RIT

UofN

tier based addressing inter and intra cloud

BB cloud identifier

Tier based addressing - inter and intra cloud

Tier 1prefix

1.

1

1.1:1

2.1:2:x

2.1:1:1

1.1:2

1.1:3

2.1:1:2

2.1:1:3

2.1:1:4

3.1:1:1:1

3.1:1:1:2

3.1:1:1:3

3.1:1:1:4

BB1

BB3

DR cloud identifier

BB Cloud identifier

BB2

DR1

Tier 2 prefix

2.

1:

1

DR4

DR2

DR3

AR1

AR3

AR3

AR4

Tier 3 prefix 3.

1:

1:

1

Rochester Institute of Technology

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Tier 4 prefix 4.

1:1:1:1??

Flexible Addressing - Wireless friendly

flexibile addressing scheme
Flexibile Addressing Scheme

Length field

Address field

Length field

Address field

Tier field

2.1:1:4

6 bits

2 bits

4- 12 bits

“01”

“10”

“11”

“00”  Special handling

4 bits  16 systems

8 bits  256 systems

12 bits  4096 systems

6 bits – 64 tiers

000010 01 0001 01 0001 01 0100

tier 1st address 2nd address 3rd address

flexibility in addressing scheme
Flexibility in Addressing Scheme
  • Faster forwarding between tiers –
    • Switch on tier field – UP, DOWN,
    • Same level –Mesh as required and route - maximum 4096
    • Distribute routing load to within tiers
  • Address length depends on tier level – (no fixed size)
  • Addresses will never run out
  • 00 - Special addressing – wireless networks, roaming user
  • Flexibility – nested addressing
nested addressing
Nested Addressing

DNS

BB1

BB2

Cloud ID 1.1

BB3

Cloud ID– 2.1:1

DNS

DR1

DR4

DR2

DR3

Cloud ID– 3.1:1:1

AR4

AR3

Global ID– 3.1:1:1:x

BB2

Tier 1 – 1.1

  • Flexibility at tier level
  • Internal addressing structure
    • Private, partly private/public
  • DNS to locate
  • DNS hierarchy
    • domain name service /tier

BB1

OR1

OR2

Tier 2 – 2.1:1

Client network

Small ISP

DNS

special handling
Special Handling

Length field = 00 – No forwarding

Address field

  • 00 – Last address field
  • 01 - Roaming user
  • 02 - Proprietary addressing
    • IPv4
    • IPv6?
  • 03 – sensor networks
  • 04 – user requires an address
  • 05 – user requires some service

Length field

2 bits

01 – 4 bits

10 – 8 bits

11- 12 bits

00- special handling

roaming user
Roaming User

AAA server

Cloud ID 1.1

BB1

BB2

3.1:1:1:1

3.1:1:1:2

3.1:2:1:4

AAA server

BB3

AAA server

Cloud ID– 2.1:1

DR1

Cloud ID– 2.1:2

DR4

DR2

DR3

AR2

AR1

Cloud ID– 3.1:1:1

AR4

Cloud ID– 3.1:2:1

Request – length=00, Afield=01

Request – length=00, Afield=01

TIER LEVEL DISTRIBUTED AAA SERVERs

MN

MN

Address assigned – 3.1:1:1:1:x

Address assigned – 3.1:1:1:2:x

NO HOME ADDRESS CONCEPT – LOCATE BY NAME SERVICE ONLY

the protocol stack
The Protocol Stack

Application with reliable transmission if required

Max routing table size -4096

Tier 1 ISPs - around 10 entries

Impact on all optical networks

Inter ISP agreements (RPI &UNR)

ISP - transit services (RPI & UNR)

Port Services

Switch up/down,

Intra-tier routing

Medium Access control

Physical layer

architectural studies progress
Architectural studies - Progress
  • Proposed architecture, addressing developed in Opnet
  • Imported AT & T topology from Rocketfuel
  • Imported to Opnet for simulation studies
  • Imposing hierarchy in the ISP topology
    • Cytoscape based optimization study
at t seattle pop
AT & T Seattle POP

Rocket fuel – Cytoscape (architectural studies)

wireless network roaming studies
Wireless Network-Roaming studies
  • Studying seamless roaming scenarios
  • Addressing during roaming
  • Mobility Anchor points concept
    • Common prefix
    • Optimization
  • AAA service
  • DNS service
transition studies technical
Transition studies (Technical)
  • Inherent in the solutions
    • Structural topology– ISP topologies start point
    • Addressing – ISP and wireless friendly
      • backward compatible
    • What is different?
      • The structure is not an overlay
        • Effect of underlying structure is still there
        • Virtual effect, complex
      • Solution can be implemented at layer 2
        • Impact the underlying structure
      • Modification to MPLS – HLSP (hierarchical Label switching)
      • Label stacking – hierarchy can be introduced
test beds
Test Beds
  • Test bed of 12 Linux systems
    • IP applications
  • MPLS test bed - transition
  • MPLS based testing at RIT network
slide20

Tier 1

11

12

21

24

Tier 2

22

23

Tier 3

32

34

36

31

37

33

35

21-32 / 32

21-11-23-35 / 11-23-35/ ……

21-22-33 / 22 – 33 / 33

21- 12- 24- 37 / 12 -24-37/ ….

21 – 12- 24- 36 / 12-24-36/ …

21-22-34 / 22-34 /34

slide21

123

1

111121

12

1111

1111212

1231

11

11112

111

124

111212

122

RIP ?

OSPF ?

DIJSKTRA’S

122 1

1112

11121

12311

1221

124 1

12211

1121

11211

MULTI MESHED TREE

ALGORITHM

112

the socioeconomic piece towards understanding the market context for network innovation
The Socioeconomic Piece: Towards Understanding the Market Context for Network Innovation
  • Initial Business Industry Analysis
  • Buyer Power
  • Language check: Deployment ≠ Adoption
which forces are prevalent in the internet industry
Which forces are prevalent in the Internet Industry?

Traditional Business Analysis (ala Porter) looks at 5 Forces in an Industry.

Collectively, these forces inform the business opportunities available in this Industry

Note: The threat of New Entrants and Supplier Power are the key Drivers according to Datamonitor 2007

which entities are capturing value
Which entities are capturing value?

Shawn O'Donnell’s 2002 Economic Map of the Internet is being enhanced to reflect the state of the 2009 Internet Industry.

An Economic Value Map can help to identify key influencers in the Industry.

but what else is happening
But what else is happening?

“Web could collapse as video demand soars” –Daily Telegraph 4/28/2008

“Study: 44% Of Internet Traffic Is Peer-to-Peer” Multichannel News 6/23/2008

“NebuAd loses CEO, business model in wake of tracking furor” ArsTechnica 12/5/2008

susanbeebeRT @Dan_Agnew: RT @LeeDrake: I am putting together a website to try to attract VerizonFIOS to Rochester. #TWC needs some real competition about 8 hours ago from TweetDeck

traditional analysis does not capture the new importance of users
Traditional analysis does not capture the new importance of users
  • Scott Jordan’s 4 Tenets
    • ISP adoption driven by consumer “product” (example VOIP or Video)
  • Fixing problems versus enabling features
  • “Glacial” adoption of IPv6

Science Engineering Economics Business Here Be Dragons

know the consumers
Know the Consumers

We are conducting a study of Internet stakeholders to evaluate the adoption of a new Internet infrastructure. Initial 90 respondents from NANOG 2009

and further
And further
  • Clemon’s concept of Informedness alters traditional thinking on Product, Promotion, Pricing(2008).
  • How might we designing “Products” and/or Incentives for various target Customers (ISP, CIO, End User)
  • Contract Switching…coming up next