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Internet Architecture

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  1. Internet Architecture

  2. Day 8 Agenda • Return and review assignment # 2 • 5 A’s, 3 B’s, 1 D, 2 non-submits • Quiz # 1 on Oct 4 • Chap 1, 2 & 3 • 20 M/C, 1 Essay (choice of 3), 1 Extra credit • 45 Min Open Book Open Notes • Lecture/Discuss Internet Architecture

  3. Internet Architecture Overview • What is a Network? • IP Addresses • Networks • Information Transfer • Cable Types • Key Components of a Network • Factors in Designing a Network • Network Management System

  4. Internet Architecture: What is a Network? What is a Network? • A connection between at least two computers for the purpose of sharing resources • Types: • Local Area Networks (LANs) • Wide Area Networks (WANs) • Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs)

  5. Internet Architecture: What is a Network? Peer-to-peer Network • Computers linked together as equals • No centralized control • Share resources on the same network in any way & any time • Promotes institutionalized chaos • < 10 computers

  6. Benefits Easy to install/configure Inexpensive User is able to control their own resources Independent from a dedicated server No need for a network administrator Drawbacks Security problems Performance suffers when a computer is accessed Difficult to have backup Decentralized logon passwords No centralized data management Internet Architecture: What is a Network? Peer-to-peer Network (Cont’d)

  7. Internet Architecture: What is a Network? Client/Server Network • Server – designed to address a client’s request • Client – any computer connected to the server within a network • Allow authorized user to access any programs/application resided on the server

  8. Benefits Centralized security control Simpler network administration than peer-to-peer network Centralized password More scalable Ideal for computers are apart Drawbacks Network failure = clients are helpless Specialized staff are needed Higher costs Internet Architecture: What is a Network? Client/Server Network (Cont’d)

  9. Internet Architecture: IP Addresses IP Addresses • A host number to identify itself to other hosts • Consists of strings of 32 bits • E.g. 10111111010101010100000000001100 = 191.170.64.12 • Host Name • Human-friendly internet addresses • E.g. ema3z.mcintire.virginia.edu

  10. Internet Architecture: Networks Networks • Network vs. Local • Networks are classified by three sizes:

  11. Numbers of Hosts

  12. Internet Architecture: Networks Networks (Cont’d) • Zones • Three-letter kind (com, gov, edu) • Two-letter kind (ca, uk, jp) • New general-purpose zones (firm, store) • More Information at The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority • http://www.iana.org/domain-names.htm

  13. Network Names (TLDs) • AERO air-transport industry • ARPA Address and Routing Parameter Area • BIZ business • COM commercial • COOP cooperatives • EDU U.S. educational • GOV U.S. government • INFO information • INT international organizations • MIL U.S. military • MUSEUM museums • NAME individuals, by name • NET network ORG organization • PRO professions

  14. Day 9 Agenda • Quick Review • Quiz # 1 Today • 20 M/C, 1 Essay (choice of 3), 1 Extra credit • 45 Min Open Book Open Notes • Lecture/Discuss Internet Architecture • Assignment # 3 • Do even numbered Review Question on Page 125 & 126 (2, 4, 6, …20) • Turn in a well formatted typed response sheet • Due Tuesday, October 8 at start of class

  15. Day 10 Agenda • Get Assignment # 3 • Return and Review Quiz • 2 A’s, 2 B’s, 6 C’s, 1 F • Finish Discussion on Chap 4 • Next Class we will discus Case Study and Initiative papers.

  16. Internet Architecture: Information Transfer Information Transfer • Packet • Grouping of data for transmission on a network • Large messages are split into a series of packets for transmission • Protocol • A rule governing how communication should be conducted • Internet Protocol • Set of rules used to pass packets

  17. Internet Architecture: Information Transfer Information Transfer (Cont’d) • Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) • A layered approach to networking • Each layer handles a different portion of the communication process

  18. Internet Architecture: Information Transfer OSI Reference Model

  19. Internet Architecture: Information Transfer OSI Reference Model (Cont’d) • Application Layer • Defines requests & response formats • Standard: HTTP • Governs requests & response between browser & web server application program • Other standards: SMTP, POP • HTML-compatible • File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), Domain Name Service (DNS)

  20. Internet Architecture: Information Transfer OSI Reference Model (Cont’d) • Presentation Layer • Converts data into a format the receiving application can understand • Session Layer • Exchanges data for the duration of session • Keeps track of the status of exchange • Ensures only designated parties are allowed to participate in the session • Enforces security protocols for controlling access

  21. Internet Architecture: Information Transfer OSI Reference Model (Cont’d) • Transport Layer • Manages the transmission of data across a network • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) • Specifies how two host computers will work together • Flow control • Sequence assurance • Reliability & integrity

  22. Internet Architecture: Information Transfer OSI Reference Model (Cont’d) • Internet Layer • Routes messages across multiple nodes for delivery • Handles network congestion to minimize performance problems • Internet Protocol (IP) • Standard for routing packets

  23. Internet Architecture: Information Transfer OSI Reference Model (Cont’d) • Data Link Layer • Packages data into frames for delivery • Point-to-point (PPP) • Framing – mark boundary between packets • Error detection • Ethernet • Physical Layer • Converts bits into signals for outgoing messages & signals into bits for incoming messages

  24. Internet Architecture: Cable Types Cable Types • Twisted-Pair Cable • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) • Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) • Optical Fiber • Coaxial Cable • Wireless Technology

  25. UTP Cable

  26. Internet Architecture: Cable Types Twisted-Pair Cable • Consists of two pairs of insulated copper wires twisted around each other • Advantages • Protect against cross talk & interference • Easy to add computers to network • Well understood technology • Less expensive • Disadvantages • Susceptibility to noise • Least secure • Distance limitations • Requires more expensive hubs

  27. Internet Architecture: Cable Types Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) • Pair of wires do not have the shielding against electrical interference • Advantages • Less expensive • Easy to install • Disadvantages • Vulnerable to electromagnetic interference & crosswalk • Subject to attenuation

  28. Internet Architecture: Cable Types Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) • An electrically grounded woven copper mesh wrapped around each twisted pair • Advantage • Reduces electromagnetic interference (EMI) • Disadvantage • Makes the wiring thick and is difficult to maintain

  29. Optical Fiber

  30. Internet Architecture: Cable Types Optical Fiber • Uses light rather than voltage to indicate one and zeros • Advantages • High speed transmission • High security • Smallest in size • Supports voice & video data • Disadvantages • Expensive • Difficult to install • Require two cables to transmit & receive data • Require special connections

  31. Coaxial Cable

  32. Internet Architecture: Cable Types Coaxial Cable • Copper center shielded by a plastic insulating material • Advantages • Transmits up to 10Mbps over 500m • Easy to install • Low maintenance • Good resistance to noise over long distances • Disadvantages • Inflexible • Low security • Limited distance

  33. Internet Architecture: Cable Types Wireless Technology • Microwave • Connect LANs in separate buildings • Radio waves • No distance limitations • Susceptible to atmospheric and electronic interference • Subject to government regulations • Infrared transmissions • Interference from bright light

  34. Internet Architecture: Key Components of a Network Key Components of A Network • Network Interface Card (NIC) • Hubs & Switches • Routers • Gateways

  35. Internet Architecture: Key Components of a Network Network Interface Card • Installed in a slot with a cable plugged into the back • Plugged into a wall jack connection or into the hub/switch directly • Modem • Converts digital signals into analog form for transmission and incoming analog signals into digital signal across the telephone line

  36. Internet Architecture: Key Components of a Network Hubs & Switches • Hub • Operates at Physical Layer • Acts as a connecting point • Passive, active, and intelligent hubs • Switch • Offers direct connection to a particular PC • Available for almost every OSI level

  37. Internet Architecture: Key Components of a Network Routers • Operate at Internet Layer • Evaluate network traffic and stop local traffic from causing congestion • Filter out packets that need not be received • Expensive & difficult to operate

  38. Internet Architecture: Key Components of a Network Gateways • Special-purpose computer allowing communications between dissimilar systems on the network • Operate at Application Layer primarily • Difficult to install & configure • Expensive

  39. Internet Architecture: Factors in Designing a Network Factors in Designing a Network • Location • Capacity • Distance limitations • Cost • Potential growth • Security

  40. Internet Architecture: Factors in Designing a Network Factors in Selecting Network Architecture • Hardware requirements • Software requirements • Disaster recovery & fault-tolerance requirements • Corporate culture and organizational factors

  41. Internet Architecture: Network Management System Network Management System • Manager • Managed Nodes • Objects • Management Information Base (MIB) • Requests & responses

  42. Programming Procedural & Scripting Object Oriented Markup Languages System analysis Needs assessment System design and Specification Project Management Networks Design Administration Security Databases Design Transaction programming Administration Mangement Implications Technical Talents Required

  43. Management Implications • High demand for Technical talent • Project Management • Business Knowledge • Communication Skills • Retaining Talent • Constructive & Timely Feedback • Recognition & Appreciation • Championing Staff Causes • Support Employee Career goals • Match Industry Standards for Salary