internet architecture l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Internet Architecture PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Internet Architecture

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 43

Internet Architecture - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 634 Views
  • Uploaded on

Internet Architecture Day 8 Agenda Return and review assignment # 2 5 A’s, 3 B’s, 1 D, 2 non-submits Quiz # 1 on Oct 4 Chap 1, 2 & 3 20 M/C, 1 Essay (choice of 3), 1 Extra credit 45 Min Open Book Open Notes Lecture/Discuss Internet Architecture Internet Architecture Overview

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Internet Architecture' - Thomas


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
day 8 agenda
Day 8 Agenda
  • Return and review assignment # 2
    • 5 A’s, 3 B’s, 1 D, 2 non-submits
  • Quiz # 1 on Oct 4
    • Chap 1, 2 & 3
    • 20 M/C, 1 Essay (choice of 3), 1 Extra credit
    • 45 Min Open Book Open Notes
  • Lecture/Discuss Internet Architecture
overview

Internet Architecture

Overview
  • What is a Network?
  • IP Addresses
  • Networks
  • Information Transfer
  • Cable Types
  • Key Components of a Network
  • Factors in Designing a Network
  • Network Management System
what is a network

Internet Architecture: What is a Network?

What is a Network?
  • A connection between at least two computers for the purpose of sharing resources
  • Types:
    • Local Area Networks (LANs)
    • Wide Area Networks (WANs)
    • Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs)
peer to peer network

Internet Architecture: What is a Network?

Peer-to-peer Network
  • Computers linked together as equals
  • No centralized control
  • Share resources on the same network in any way & any time
  • Promotes institutionalized chaos
  • < 10 computers
peer to peer network cont d
Benefits

Easy to install/configure

Inexpensive

User is able to control their own resources

Independent from a dedicated server

No need for a network administrator

Drawbacks

Security problems

Performance suffers when a computer is accessed

Difficult to have backup

Decentralized logon passwords

No centralized data management

Internet Architecture: What is a Network?

Peer-to-peer Network (Cont’d)
client server network

Internet Architecture: What is a Network?

Client/Server Network
  • Server – designed to address a client’s request
  • Client – any computer connected to the server within a network
  • Allow authorized user to access any programs/application resided on the server
client server network cont d
Benefits

Centralized security control

Simpler network administration than peer-to-peer network

Centralized password

More scalable

Ideal for computers are apart

Drawbacks

Network failure = clients are helpless

Specialized staff are needed

Higher costs

Internet Architecture: What is a Network?

Client/Server Network (Cont’d)
ip addresses

Internet Architecture: IP Addresses

IP Addresses
  • A host number to identify itself to other hosts
  • Consists of strings of 32 bits
  • E.g. 10111111010101010100000000001100 = 191.170.64.12
  • Host Name
    • Human-friendly internet addresses
    • E.g. ema3z.mcintire.virginia.edu
networks

Internet Architecture: Networks

Networks
  • Network vs. Local
  • Networks are classified by three sizes:
networks cont d

Internet Architecture: Networks

Networks (Cont’d)
  • Zones
    • Three-letter kind (com, gov, edu)
    • Two-letter kind (ca, uk, jp)
    • New general-purpose zones (firm, store)
  • More Information at The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
    • http://www.iana.org/domain-names.htm
network names tlds
Network Names (TLDs)
  • AERO air-transport industry
  • ARPA Address and Routing Parameter Area
  • BIZ business
  • COM commercial
  • COOP cooperatives
  • EDU U.S. educational
  • GOV U.S. government
  • INFO information
  • INT international organizations
  • MIL U.S. military
  • MUSEUM museums
  • NAME individuals, by name
  • NET network ORG organization
  • PRO professions
day 9 agenda
Day 9 Agenda
  • Quick Review
  • Quiz # 1 Today
    • 20 M/C, 1 Essay (choice of 3), 1 Extra credit
    • 45 Min Open Book Open Notes
  • Lecture/Discuss Internet Architecture
  • Assignment # 3
    • Do even numbered Review Question on Page 125 & 126 (2, 4, 6, …20)
    • Turn in a well formatted typed response sheet
    • Due Tuesday, October 8 at start of class
day 10 agenda
Day 10 Agenda
  • Get Assignment # 3
  • Return and Review Quiz
    • 2 A’s, 2 B’s, 6 C’s, 1 F
  • Finish Discussion on Chap 4
  • Next Class we will discus Case Study and Initiative papers.
information transfer

Internet Architecture: Information Transfer

Information Transfer
  • Packet
    • Grouping of data for transmission on a network
    • Large messages are split into a series of packets for transmission
  • Protocol
    • A rule governing how communication should be conducted
    • Internet Protocol
      • Set of rules used to pass packets
information transfer cont d

Internet Architecture: Information Transfer

Information Transfer (Cont’d)
  • Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
    • A layered approach to networking
    • Each layer handles a different portion of the communication process
osi reference model cont d

Internet Architecture: Information Transfer

OSI Reference Model (Cont’d)
  • Application Layer
    • Defines requests & response formats
    • Standard: HTTP
      • Governs requests & response between browser & web server application program
      • Other standards: SMTP, POP
      • HTML-compatible
    • File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), Domain Name Service (DNS)
osi reference model cont d20

Internet Architecture: Information Transfer

OSI Reference Model (Cont’d)
  • Presentation Layer
    • Converts data into a format the receiving application can understand
  • Session Layer
    • Exchanges data for the duration of session
    • Keeps track of the status of exchange
    • Ensures only designated parties are allowed to participate in the session
    • Enforces security protocols for controlling access
osi reference model cont d21

Internet Architecture: Information Transfer

OSI Reference Model (Cont’d)
  • Transport Layer
    • Manages the transmission of data across a network
    • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
      • Specifies how two host computers will work together
      • Flow control
      • Sequence assurance
      • Reliability & integrity
osi reference model cont d22

Internet Architecture: Information Transfer

OSI Reference Model (Cont’d)
  • Internet Layer
    • Routes messages across multiple nodes for delivery
    • Handles network congestion to minimize performance problems
    • Internet Protocol (IP)
      • Standard for routing packets
osi reference model cont d23

Internet Architecture: Information Transfer

OSI Reference Model (Cont’d)
  • Data Link Layer
    • Packages data into frames for delivery
    • Point-to-point (PPP)
      • Framing – mark boundary between packets
      • Error detection
    • Ethernet
  • Physical Layer
    • Converts bits into signals for outgoing messages & signals into bits for incoming messages
cable types

Internet Architecture: Cable Types

Cable Types
  • Twisted-Pair Cable
  • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
  • Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
  • Optical Fiber
  • Coaxial Cable
  • Wireless Technology
twisted pair cable

Internet Architecture: Cable Types

Twisted-Pair Cable
  • Consists of two pairs of insulated copper wires twisted around each other
  • Advantages
    • Protect against cross talk & interference
    • Easy to add computers to network
    • Well understood technology
    • Less expensive
  • Disadvantages
    • Susceptibility to noise
    • Least secure
    • Distance limitations
    • Requires more expensive hubs
unshielded twisted pair utp

Internet Architecture: Cable Types

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
  • Pair of wires do not have the shielding against electrical interference
  • Advantages
    • Less expensive
    • Easy to install
  • Disadvantages
    • Vulnerable to electromagnetic interference & crosswalk
    • Subject to attenuation
shielded twisted pair stp

Internet Architecture: Cable Types

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
  • An electrically grounded woven copper mesh wrapped around each twisted pair
  • Advantage
    • Reduces electromagnetic interference (EMI)
  • Disadvantage
    • Makes the wiring thick and is difficult to maintain
optical fiber30

Internet Architecture: Cable Types

Optical Fiber
  • Uses light rather than voltage to indicate one and zeros
  • Advantages
    • High speed transmission
    • High security
    • Smallest in size
    • Supports voice & video data
  • Disadvantages
    • Expensive
    • Difficult to install
    • Require two cables to transmit & receive data
    • Require special connections
coaxial cable32

Internet Architecture: Cable Types

Coaxial Cable
  • Copper center shielded by a plastic insulating material
  • Advantages
    • Transmits up to 10Mbps over 500m
    • Easy to install
    • Low maintenance
    • Good resistance to noise over long distances
  • Disadvantages
    • Inflexible
    • Low security
    • Limited distance
wireless technology

Internet Architecture: Cable Types

Wireless Technology
  • Microwave
    • Connect LANs in separate buildings
  • Radio waves
    • No distance limitations
    • Susceptible to atmospheric and electronic interference
    • Subject to government regulations
  • Infrared transmissions
    • Interference from bright light
key components of a network

Internet Architecture: Key Components of a Network

Key Components of A Network
  • Network Interface Card (NIC)
  • Hubs & Switches
  • Routers
  • Gateways
network interface card

Internet Architecture: Key Components of a Network

Network Interface Card
  • Installed in a slot with a cable plugged into the back
  • Plugged into a wall jack connection or into the hub/switch directly
  • Modem
    • Converts digital signals into analog form for transmission and incoming analog signals into digital signal across the telephone line
hubs switches

Internet Architecture: Key Components of a Network

Hubs & Switches
  • Hub
    • Operates at Physical Layer
    • Acts as a connecting point
    • Passive, active, and intelligent hubs
  • Switch
    • Offers direct connection to a particular PC
    • Available for almost every OSI level
routers

Internet Architecture: Key Components of a Network

Routers
  • Operate at Internet Layer
  • Evaluate network traffic and stop local traffic from causing congestion
  • Filter out packets that need not be received
  • Expensive & difficult to operate
gateways

Internet Architecture: Key Components of a Network

Gateways
  • Special-purpose computer allowing communications between dissimilar systems on the network
  • Operate at Application Layer primarily
  • Difficult to install & configure
  • Expensive
factors in designing a network

Internet Architecture: Factors in Designing a Network

Factors in Designing a Network
  • Location
  • Capacity
  • Distance limitations
  • Cost
  • Potential growth
  • Security
factors in selecting network architecture

Internet Architecture: Factors in Designing a Network

Factors in Selecting Network Architecture
  • Hardware requirements
  • Software requirements
  • Disaster recovery & fault-tolerance requirements
  • Corporate culture and organizational factors
network management system

Internet Architecture: Network Management System

Network Management System
  • Manager
  • Managed Nodes
  • Objects
  • Management Information Base (MIB)
  • Requests & responses
mangement implications technical talents required
Programming

Procedural & Scripting

Object Oriented

Markup Languages

System analysis

Needs assessment

System design and Specification

Project Management

Networks

Design

Administration

Security

Databases

Design

Transaction programming

Administration

Mangement Implications Technical Talents Required
management implications
Management Implications
  • High demand for Technical talent
    • Project Management
    • Business Knowledge
    • Communication Skills
  • Retaining Talent
    • Constructive & Timely Feedback
    • Recognition & Appreciation
    • Championing Staff Causes
    • Support Employee Career goals
    • Match Industry Standards for Salary