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Aim: How did European colonies in India and Africa achieve their independence, and what challenges do they face today?
I. Amritsar Massacre A. To fight back against British imperialism, 10,000 Hindu and Muslim Indians went to the city of Amritsar in the spring of 1919 for non-violent protest rallies B. Most of these Indians did not know that the British had placed a ban on public meetings. C. British opened fire into crowd (400 dead, 1,200 wounded)—Amritsar Massacre
II. Gandhi’s Principals of Non-Violence • Mohandas Gandhi becomes the leader of the nationalist movement in India, attracts millions of followers who are upset by British cruelty • Gandhi believes in the policy of civil disobedience– Deliberate and public refusal to obey an unjust law. Civil disobedience must always be non-violent. Examples: • Boycott - don’t buy British goods (especially cloth) • Don’t pay British taxes • Don’t vote in elections. Can you think of any examples in American history of people using civil disobedience?
III. The Salt March (1930) • According to the Salt Acts, Indians were only allowed to buy salt from the British government. • In 1930, Gandhi led the Salt March—he marched his followers 240 miles to sea to make their own salt—noticed by the world.
IV. Independence for India (1947) • In 1947, Great Britain grants independence to India. Unfortunately, Hindus and Muslims in the country can’t agree on a government and fighting breaks out. • Partition of India (1947): British officials drew up borders that turned India into two separate countries: India (for Hindus) and Pakistan (for Muslims). • The partition set off mass migrations of Muslims fleeing India and Hindus fleeing Pakistan. Millions were killed crossing the borders. • Gandhi tries to bring peace, but is assassinated by a Hindu extremist in 1948.
V. India Since 1947 A. Jawaharlal Nehru was India’s first Prime Minister (1947-1964). He was followed by his daughter Indira Gandhi (1966-1984) and her son Rajiv Gandhi (1984-1991). B. India becomes the world’s largest parliamentary democracy (a system taken from the British) and has a growing economy, but it still has many problems: • Traditional Hindu caste system and restrictions on the rights of women stand in the way of social equality. • Rapid population growth = millions living in poverty • Religious extremism: The Sikhs (religious group that combines Hindu and Muslim ideas) wanted their own state in Punjab during the 1980s. They assassinate Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. • India and Pakistan compete over the territory of Kashmir (it is controlled by India, but has a mostly Muslim population). They fight wars over it in 1947-1948 and 1965. This could still lead to nuclear war today!
VI. Africa Becomes Independent (1920s-1960s) • Starting in the 1920s, African nations become more nationalistic and start demanding independence from Europe! • Pan-Africanism – Emphasized the unity of Africans and urged them to work together against European colonialism. • African countries start gaining their independence after WWII (Europe greatly weakened by the war) • Ghana (Gold Coast) = first country to get independence (1957) • Leader: Kwame Nkrumah • Methods = Strikes, boycotts and peaceful protests against the British • Kenya = Jomo Kenyatta leads an independence movement against the British, becomes first Prime Minister of a free Kenya in 1963. Jomo Kenyatta
VII. Contemporary Problems in Africa • Tribalism – Most of the current national boundaries in Africa were established during the colonial period by Europeans. These boundaries placed different ethnic groups in the same nation, many of which hate each other. This has led to violence and genocide: • Rwanda (1994): Country is 85 percent Hutu, 14 percent Tutsi. In 1994, Hutu extremists launched a genocide against the Tutsis. 500,000 were killed in just a few months, while the U.N. and the United States did nothing to help. Eventually, a Tutsi-led rebel army seized control of the government and stopped the genocide. • Darfur in Western Sudan (2003-Present): The government of Sudan unleashed Arabic militias on the villagers in Darfur because the villagers had been demanding more rights and better living conditions. 200,000 villagers have been killed, and 2 million more have become refugees.
VII. Contemporary Problems in Africa B. Other problems: • Harsh dictators in many African countries. • Overpopulation = poverty and famine in many places. • Cash crop economies: Countries like Nigeria focus on producing profitable cash-crops (like oil) for the world instead of food for their own people. Can lead to famine and also economic collapse if prices for the cash-crop go down (this happened to Nigeria when oil prices went down in the 1980s). • Many African nations have borrowed money from Europe and the U.S. to achieve industrial growth. This has led to massive debt! • AIDS has spread rapidly through African nations since the 1980s.
VIII. Apartheid in South Africa • South Africa gained independence from Great Britain in 1910. Dutch whites (called Afrikaners) are only 25% of the population, but control the government and discriminate against the black majority. • In 1948, the white government establishes a system called apartheid, or separation of the races. It required black Africans to live in separate neighborhoods and use segregated schools, hospitals and transportation. Blacks were given just 13% of the land even though they were 75% of the population. • Anti-Apartheid Movement (1940s-1980s) • African National Congress (ANC) – Used violence as well as boycotts and civil disobedience to protest apartheid. • In 1964, ANC leader Nelson Mandela was sentenced to life in prison. He became a powerful symbol of the black struggle for freedom • Desmond Tutu, a South African priest and civil rights leader, convinced many foreign nations and businesses to stop trading with South Africa until they end apartheid. This has a strong effect! Nelson Mandela Desmond Tutu
VIII. Apartheid in South Africa D. The End of Apartheid (1989-1994) • In 1989, F.W. de Klerk becomes president of South Africa. Facing economic and political pressure from the rest of the world, he legalizes the ANC, repeals segregation laws and releases Nelson Mandela from prison. • In 1994, South Africa holds an election in which people of all races can finally vote. Mandela is elected president, and black South Africans take control of the government. Apartheid is officially over! F.W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela