The Passive To be + Past Participle Spanish is spoken in Cuba. (Negative) Not + 1st helping verb Spanish is not spoken in France.
Sentences are either in the activeor the passive voice.Active and Passive sentences have the same meaningIn writing, we prefer the active voice because it is more direct.
The Passive • Use the passive when it is not important to emphasize or even mention the doer (agent) of the action. • If the doer (agent) is important, the active voice is usually preferable.
The Passive occurs in the following circumstances: In scientific writing 3ml of HCL was added to the test tube and heated to 37%
When we want to emphasize what happened, not who did it.Jack was promoted last month.
In journalism, or other writing, when the writer cannot or does not want to identify the agent.The suspect is being questioned right now.
When the performer of the action is unknown.The wheel was invented during the bronze Age.
When the performer of the action is unimportant.Smoking is prohibited in airplanes.Cats are not allowed in the apartment.
Use of passive without by • Agent is unknown or not important • Clear from context –The book is sold at the auction for $50.00 • To avoid mentioning who – Some mistakes were made. • In scientific and technical writing and newspaper articles. • Very general (people, everyone, someone), impersonal subjects.
Use of passive with by • For additional new information My car was hit by a truck. • Information about agent is too important to omit. – It was signed by the president himself. • Proper names or famous people. This article was written by John Delgado. • Agent is surprising • To give credit to the creator of something.
Active sentences can take objectsPassive sentences do not take objects.The object of an active sentence becomes the subject of a passive sentence.
Millions of people read the magazine.Active sentence: The focus is on people. The subject performs the action of the verb.
The magazine is read by millions of peoplePassive sentence: The focus is on magazine. The subject receives the action of the verb..
Passive sentences are only formed with transitive verbs.(do, take, buy, eat, give, make, etc)
You can not write passive sentences with intransitive verbs.(seem, happen, live, go, fall, or die)You can not say:He was diedyou have to say:He was killed
Simple present They serve lunch on the plane. Lunch is served on the plane.
Present Progressive They are serving lunch on the plane. Lunch is being served on the plane.
Simple Past They served lunch on the plane. Lunch was served on the plane.
Past Progressive They were serving lunch on the plane. Lunch was being served on the plane.
Present Perfect They have served lunch on the plane. Lunch has been served on the plane.
Past Perfect They had served lunch on the plane Lunch had been served on the plane
Future They will serve lunch on the plane. Lunch will be served on the plane. They are going to serve lunch on the plane. Lunch is going to be served on the plane.
Future Perfect They will have served lunch on the plane Lunch will have been served on the plane.
Modals • Lunch should be served on the plane • Lunch can be served • Lunch could be served • Lunch might be served • Lunch must be served • Lunch would be served • Lunch has to be served
Active Sentences They paint the house every 3 years. They painted the house last year. They will paint the house next year. They are painting the house now. They were painting the house all last week. They have just painted the house. They had just painted the house when the roof collapsed. They will have painted the house by next Tuesday. They expect to paint the house today. Passive Sentences The house is paintedevery three years. The house was painted last year. The house will be painted next year. The house is being painted now. The house was being painted all last week. The house has just been painted. The house had just been painted when the roof collapsed. The house will have been painted by next Tuesday. The house is expected to be painted today. Forms of the Passive
Passive Causative Get or have +object + past participle Sue gets her hair done once a week. I’ll have my house painted next week.
Use the Get or Have Passive : • To emphasize action rather than state (get passive is only used with action verbs and can not be used with stative verbs) • With living things • For services that you arrange for someone to do for you. • In conversation and not in formal speaking, and rarely in writing.