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HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION. Civilization first appeared in the Indus River Valley Centered on twin cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro Known as Harappan Civilization 2500-1500 BC. CHARACTERISTICS. Encompassed most of modern-day Pakistan Produced barley and wheat

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harappan civilization
HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION
  • Civilization first appeared in the Indus River Valley
  • Centered on twin cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro
  • Known as Harappan Civilization
  • 2500-1500 BC
characteristics
CHARACTERISTICS
  • Encompassed most of modern-day Pakistan
  • Produced barley and wheat
  • Used copper, and then bronze, tools
  • Traded with places as far away as Egypt
  • Developed a writing system
mohenjodaro
MOHENJODARO
  • Streets laid out on grid pattern
    • Indicated planning
  • Elaborate underground sewer system
    • Used both for carrying off storm water and waste
  • Clay brick architecture
    • Some buildings four stories tall
aryans
ARYANS
  • Invaders from southern Russia
  • Entered region around 1500 BC
  • Destroyed Harappa and Mohenjodaro and massacred their inhabitants
  • Plunged region into “Dark Age”
    • Cities abandoned, writing forgotten, and people reverted to Neolithic lifestyle
    • Lasted 500 years (1500-1000 BC)
revival of civilization
REVIVAL OF CIVILIZATION
  • Urban life revived in villages in the Ganges River Valley around 1000 BC
    • Inhabited by hybrid people (part Harappan/part Aryan)
    • Evolved into city-states
    • Caste system also evolved at the same time
      • Became unique Indian social phenomenon
caste system i
CASTE SYSTEM I
  • Society was at first divided into four castes
    • Warriors
    • Priests
    • Merchants/landowners
    • Small farmers/laborers
    • System was not especially rigid and there was a great deal of mobility in both directions
caste system ii
CASTE SYSTEM II
  • System grew more complicated and rigid with time
    • Ultimately there would be hundreds of castes
      • Each was forbidden from having any social contact with the others
    • At the very bottom were the “untouchables”
      • The mere accidental touch of one was considered to be polluting
mauryan empire
MAURYAN EMPIRE
  • 16 small city-states existed in the Ganges River Valley by 600 BC
    • Each ruled by an individual with the title of raja
  • One city-state grew in power at the expense of the others
    • Magada
      • Conquered entire Ganges Valley and beyond
      • Created Mauryan Empire
ashoka
ASHOKA

Chandragupta Maurya

Ashoka

Mauryan Empire founded by Chandragupta Maurya

Most famous ruler was his grandson, Ashoka

Began reign as a military conqueror but, following a battle in southern India, he decided to rule in a different, more gentle, way

more ashoka
MORE ASHOKA
  • Promised to be mild with his subjects, always place their welfare before his own ambitions, and to refrain from offensive military operations
  • Kept his word
    • Engaged in numerous public works construction projects
    • Dug thousands of wells
    • Constructed thousands of hospitals
    • Built rest areas along roads
    • Encouraged economic activity
  • Reign was a true “golden age” for India
end of the mauryan empire
END OF THE MAURYAN EMPIRE
  • Within 50 years of Ashoka’s death, the Mauryan Empire collapsed
    • Due to a series of invasions from barbarians to the north
    • Shattered unity and plunged region into anarchy
      • Characterized by a constantly-shifting mosaiac of warring city-states
    • Lasted 500 years
the gupta empire
THE GUPTA EMPIRE
  • Around 300 BC, the ruler of Magada (again) gradually conquered the entire Ganges River Valley
    • Chandra Gupta I
  • Process would be continued by his son and grandson
    • Result in the creation of the Gupta Empire
end of the gupta empire
END OF THE GUPTA EMPIRE
  • First century of Gupta Empire was a time of expanding power, growing prosperity, and cultural achievement
  • But after the death of Chandra Gupta III, the empire was invaded by the White Huns
    • From Central Asia
    • India disintegrated into numerous petty kingdoms again
indian achievements
INDIAN ACHIEVEMENTS
  • Invented several writing systems
  • Developed an elaborate literature
    • Mostly religious in content
  • Developed our modern number system
    • Called “Arabic numerals”
  • Invented the decimal system
  • Created the foundation for algebra
  • Discovered that the earth was a rotating sphere
hinduism
HINDUISM
  • In Aryan times, Indians were polytheistic
    • But, over time, three of their more important gods merged together into a three-part monotheistic deity called Brahman
      • Brahma (creator)
      • Vishnu (preserver)
      • Shiva (destroyer)
  • Brahman permeated everything in the universe
reincarnation
REINCARNATION
  • Doctrine of reincarnation came from belief that all living things were related and had souls
    • Belief that each soul is reborn in the body of another creature over and over again
  • The form that one is reborn into is determined by one’s actions during their lifetime
    • Known as karma
    • Good Karma=reborn into higher caste
    • Bad Karma=reborn into lower caste or even lower life form
wheel of suffering
WHEEL OF SUFFERING
  • Also believed that human existence was basically an endless round of suffering
    • We are all trapped on the “Wheel of Suffering” with no permanent way off
    • The only escape is through meditation
      • Merging oneself with Braham
      • But this was only a temporary escape
gautama the buddha
GAUTAMA THE BUDDHA
  • As Hinduism became the dominant religion in India, it also became more worldly and materialistic
    • Prompted appearance of “gurus” around 600 BC
      • Wanted to put Hinduism back on track by making it more spiritual
      • Most notable guru was Gautama the Buddha (Enlightened One)
        • Would create a new religion in his quest for a more spiritual life
buddha and the wheel of suffering
BUDDHA AND THE WHEEL OF SUFFERING
  • Buddha was especially concerned to find permanent escape from the Wheel of Suffering
  • Taught that the basic cause of human suffering was desire
    • The fruitless quest to acquire more and more material things
      • Argued that this never made a person happy because they always wanted more
  • Did think meditation was the complete answer either
    • Since it only provided temporary escape
nirvana
NIRVANA
  • Only way off the Wheel of Suffering was to go through an eight-step process that involved changing your entire life
    • Included rejection of selfish worldly desires. the cultivation of honesty and compassion, rejection of violence, and cleansing your mind of all evil thoughts
    • Successful result was the attainment of “nirvana”
      • Permanent escape from the Wheel of Suffering and the attainment of permanent peace and tranquility
buddha in action
BUDDHA IN ACTION
  • Buddha practiced what he preached
    • Only possession were the robe on his back, a walking stick, and wooden bowl
    • Always travelled on foot and slept outdoors
    • Presented his creed in simple language
    • Accepted persons from all castes and treated them equally
  • Attracted millions of converts across Asia
division
DIVISION
  • Hinayana Tradition (“Little Vehicle”)
    • Buddha was just a man
  • Mahayana Tradition (“Big Vehicle”)
    • Buddha was a god, the human incarnation of Brahman
    • Led to construction of temples and creation of statues devoted to his worship
    • By far the most popular of the two traditions today
shang dynasty
SHANG DYNASTY
  • Civilization emerged from Neolithic settlements along the Huang-ho River around 1500 BC
  • Shang rulers were primarily military leaders
    • Also acted as chief priests in times of peace
ancestor worship
ANCESTOR WORSHIP
  • Shang Chinese were polytheistic
    • Chief god was Shang-ti
  • Chinese believed that Shang-ti was too powerful to be approached directly by human beings through prayer
    • Began praying instead to dead relatives who had entered the spirit world where Shang-ti lived to intercede with the god
      • This practice of praying to dead relatives for aid and support continued even after belief in Shang-ti had faded away
zhou dynasty
ZHOU DYNASTY
  • According to legend, the last king of the Shang Dynasty committed unspeakable crimes against the gods and his people
    • Prompted two aristocrats from the region of Zhou to lead a rebellion against him
    • Replaced his dynasty with one of their own
      • Zhou Dynasty
      • 1000-221 BC
mandate of heaven
MANDATE OF HEAVEN
  • Chinese believed that Shang rulers had been picked by the gods to rule
    • Therefore it might look as though the Zhous had defied the wishes of the gods by overthrowing the Shangs
  • Zhous therefore developed concept of the Mandate of Heaven
    • Dynasties had the right to rule because they had special permission from the gods
    • But this permission could be revoked if they abused their power and given to another dynasty

Shang-ti

qin dynasty
QIN DYNASTY
  • By the last 200 years of the Zhou Dynasty, the kingdom had disintegrated into a collection of small, independent states, continually at war with each other
    • A new power emerged out of this mess around 300BC
      • The state of Qin began conquering its neighbors and, by 221 BC, it had taken over all of northern China
      • Ruler of Qin, Shihuangdi, takes title of “First Emperor” and founds Qin Dynasty
qin achievements
QIN ACHIEVEMENTS
  • Shihuangdi’s armies then conquered most of the rest of China
    • Set up centralized administrative system
      • Divided realm in 36 districts, each administered by an appointed governor
    • Established a standard system of weights and measures, uniform coinage system, and a standard alphabet
    • Built numerous roads and canals
    • Began work on the “Great Wall”
big downside
BIG DOWNSIDE
  • Shihuangdi drove his people mercilessly
    • Imposed heavy taxes
    • Imposed forced labor
    • Brutally crushed all dissent
      • Even burnt books
  • Became obsessed with finding magic potion that would give him immortality
    • Died in 210 BC while searching for potion
han dynasty
HAN DYNASTY
  • Death of Shihuangdi was followed by civil war
    • All Qin family members were killed
    • Ultimate victor was Lui Bang
      • Former bandit leader
      • Founded the Han Dynasty
        • 202 BC-220 AD
        • So beloved by Chinese that they call themselves the “People of Han” today
han history
HAN HISTORY
  • Lui Bang continued centralizing policies of Shihuangdi
    • But had the common sense to go easier on his people
  • Greatest Han ruler was Han Wudi
    • Extended Han power into Tibet, Korea, and Mongolia
    • Established relations with Japan
    • Created the “Silk Road”
      • Trade route that stretched from China, through India, and into Europe
  • Han Dynasty collapsed in 250 AD due to civil war, rebellions, and invasions
writing
WRITING
  • Writing first appeared during Shang Dynasty
    • Oracle Bones
  • First books appeared during Zhou Dynasty
    • Made from sheets of bamboo
  • Alphabet was standardized under Shihuangdi
    • Has changed little since
  • Paper invented during Han dynasty
    • Used to produce a rich and varied literature
confucius
CONFUCIUS
  • Best known Chinese “sage” was Confucius
    • Lived during anarchy of the late Zhou Dynasty
    • Teachings were written down after his death by his students in a book called the Analects
    • Primarily concerned with the issue of how human beings could live together harmoniously in society
hierarchy
HIERARCHY
  • Advocated a society where everyone had a specific place and performed all the obligations associated with that place
    • Called this “Hierarchy”
    • A rigid system but it did help to preserve harmony and order in an increasingly overcrowded country for a long time
gentleman
GENTLEMAN
  • Originally, the term “gentleman” meant a person of high status by virtue of their birth
  • Confucius gave the term a moral meaning
    • Gentleman was a person who behaved in a virtuous manner
      • Since anyone could do this, anyone (regardless of their social status) could be considered a gentleman
  • Confucius argued that one’s place in society should be determined by their behavior and personal qualities, not by their wealth or birth
daoism
DAOISM
  • Allegedly founded by Laozi
    • Author of Daodejing (“The Way”)
    • May or may not have been a real person
    • Allegedly lived during the last years of the Zhou Dynasty
daoist theology i
DAOIST THEOLOGY I
  • The Dao is the unseen root of all things
    • It provides balance and harmony to the universe
    • Everything, including human beings, is a part of it
  • Because human beings have free will and desires, they are capable of acting “unnaturally” and thereby upsetting the natural balance within the Dao
    • Purpose of Daoism is to teach people to return to their natural state of behavior, to behave in such a way as to restore the balance of the Dao
daoist theology ii
DAOIST THEOLOGY II
  • Human beings should engage in wuwei
    • Means “acting spontaneously” and “flowing with the moment”
  • If human beings want to be in harmony with the universe, with the Dao, they should simply do what feels good and right to them at the moment
    • Should act in a simple, unselfish, and humble manner
      • Without artifice
      • No role-playing, game-playing, or dishonesty
        • Just be yourself
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