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Harappan Civilization ( also known as Indus Civilization). 2300-1750 BCE (or 2600-1900 BCE) Chapter 3, pp. 63-64. The Great Bath. Harappa.

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harappan civilization also known as indus civilization

Harappan Civilization( also known as Indus Civilization)

2300-1750 BCE (or 2600-1900 BCE)

Chapter 3, pp. 63-64

harappa
Harappa
  • Name derived from one of its major city; Mohenjo Daro “city of the dead,”was another large city. The size of the area is around the size of England, France and Spain combined.
  • Economy based on the cultivation of wheat, barley and peas, and on trading with the Mesopotamians and others to the west.
  • Contemporary with the Mid and Old Kingdom of Egypt, the Sumarian, Akkadian, and Old Babylonian periods
  • No remains of royal tombs, palace, or large public art work.
architectural remains
Architectural Remains
  • The city was built on a grid pattern in rectangular block; buildings were made of standard size mud or baked bricks; had sewage and drainage systems
  • large streets
  • Residence house constructed around the courtyard; up to three stories (estimates had c. 35,000 inhabitants; located on the East side of the city
  • Granaries and citadel on the West side
  • Baths: provided water for residences or may have been used for general bathing and ritual ceremonies (made of brick and sealed with bitumen)
sculptures
Sculptures
  • Made of clay (terracotta, stone, and bronze)
  • Male and Female figures may represent religious figures which associated with fertility.
seals
Seals
  • Seals carved with a copper burin, coated with alkali, and baked to glaze the surface; depicted animals (e.g,humped back bull, bull, goat, elephant, crocodile) mythical animals (e.g., unicorn) standing in front of an incense burner or a trough, human figures; more than 4000 have been recovered.
  • Note: inscription of seals (with 3-10 characters) which are not decipherable; may be used for business as the seals to signify the ownership of traded merchandise; writing disappeared for 1500 years
pottery
Pottery
  • Hand thrown vessels decorated with red slip and black painted decoration (animals, geometric, floral and vegetation motifs)
  • Pipal (Figus religiosa) or Bodhi leave
summary
Summary
  • Harappa was highly structured, organized urban culture with an agricultural economy
  • They probably worshipped gods and goddesses of fertility and have practiced yogic meditation and asceticism.
  • The destruction of the civilization: flooding and water resources (the shifting of water system)