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Ch. 17. Nomadic Empires & Eurasian Integration. Economy and Society of Nomadic Pastoralism Nomadic Pastoralists and their animal s - Herds of animals - adapted to ecological conditions -followed migratory cycles that took account of seasons and local climate

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i turkish migrations imperial expansion

Economy and Society of Nomadic Pastoralism

Nomadic Pastoralists and their animals

- Herds of animals

- adapted to ecological conditions

-followed migratory cycles that took account of seasons and local climate

- climate limited development of human society

- produced limited pottery, leather goods, iron weapons, and tools

i. Turkish Migrations & Imperial Expansion
turkish migrations imperial expansion

Nomadic and Settled Peoples

- traded w/settled peoples

- agriculture and manufactured goods

- linked societies from China to Mediterranean Basin

Nomadic Society

- two social classes: nobles & commoners

- nobles: charismatic leaders, clans & tribes

into alliances, fluid class

-commoners: gain recognition and move up

Turkish Migrations & Imperial Expansion
i turkish migrations imperial expansion1

Gender Relations

- adult males dominated

- women: tended to animals, excellent horse riders & archers

Nomadic Religion

- Turkish religion revolved around shaman- religious specialist (supernatural powers)

-6th century many Turks converted to Buddhism, Christianity, or Manicheism

i. Turkish Migrations & Imperial Expansion
i turkish migrations imperial expansion2

Turkish Conversion to Islam

- 10th century large scale conversion; esp. Turks

Military Organization

- Khans (rulers), indirectly through leaders of allied tribes

- superior equestrian skills

- these skills helped to attack settle communities of wealth

i. Turkish Migrations & Imperial Expansion
i turkish migrations imperial expansion3

Turkish Empires in Persia, Anatolia and India

Saljuq Turks and the Abbasid Empire

- entered the above reasons for different reasons at different times

- opportunities for trade

- along borders of Abbasid realm at times served in Abbasid army

- 11th c. overpower caliphs, who become figureheads

i. Turkish Migrations & Imperial Expansion
i turkish migrations imperial expansion4

Saljuq Turks and the Byzantine Empire

- migrating in Anatolia 11th c.

- peasants viewed them as liberators

- displaced Byzantine authorities, set up own political and social institutions

- discriminated against the Byzantine Empire

- welcomed converts to Islam

i. Turkish Migrations & Imperial Expansion
i turkish migrations imperial expansion5

Ghaznavid Turks and the Sultanate of Delhi

- led raids in lucrative sites of N. India

- goal at first was to plunder later more interested in permanent rule

- foe of Buddhism and Hinduism, destroyed many sacred temples, shrines, monastaries

- encouraged conversion to Islam

i. Turkish Migrations & Imperial Expansion
ii the mongol empire

Chinngis Khan and the making of the Mongol Empire

Chinggis Khan’s Rise to Power

- Unifier of the Mongols originally named Temujin

- alliance w/Mongol clan leader, steppe diplomacy (loyalty but betrayal through advancement)

- brought all Mongol tribes into a single confederation

- 1206 became known as Chinggis Khan (universal ruler)

II. The Mongol Empire
ii the mongol empire1

Mongol Political Organization

- mistrusted Mongol tribal organization

- had military pledge allegiance to him alone, no tribal affiliation

- most important part of the empire was the army

Mongol Army

- relied on equestrian skills and archery

- after united all Mongols turned his attention to Central Asian conquests

II. The Mongol Empire
ii the mongol empire2

Mongol Conquest of N. China

- extended Mongol rule to Northern China, dominance by 1220

Mongol Conquest of Persia

- ruled by Saljuqs known as the Khwarazm shah

- despised Mongols ordered them to assassinate Chinggis Khan, unsuccessful

- Chinggis retaliated and took control of his army and his realm

- destroyed qanat irrigation system

- no establish central gov’t, assigned overlords for administration.

II. The Mongol Empire
ii the mongol empire3

The Mongol Empire after Chinggis Khan

Khubilai Khan

- after Chinggis death there was a power struggle, divided empire into 4 regional realms amongst grandsons.

- Consolidated China

- ruthless attacks against enemies, improved welfare of subjects, tolerant of religions

II. The Mongol Empire
ii the mongol empire4

Mongol Conquest of Southern China

- Kubilai in 1279 est. Yuan Dynasty till 1368

- attempted several invasions in SE Asia but was unsuccessful

The Golden Horde

-1237-1241

-maintained a large army

-extracted tribute from Russian cities and agricultural production, did not find the land appealing

II. The Mongol Empire
ii the mongol empire5

The llkhanate of Persia

-Khubilai’s brother Hulegu defeated Abbasid empire and started the Mongol’s ilkhanate in Persia.

- needed to become governors as well as conquerors

- difficult adjustment as administrators

- could not maintain land lost most of it w/in a century.

II. The Mongol Empire
ii the mongol empire6

Mongol Rule in Persia

- Mongols in China frowned upon their subjects, they were mere cultivators

- outlawed marriages, forbade them from learning the Mongol languages, resisted assimilation to Chinese cultures, dismantled Confucian educational end exam system.

- did not do their own administrations but rather brought in others to administer

- tolerated religious and cultural traditions

II. The Mongol Empire
ii the mongol empire7

Mongols and Buddhism

- Most Mongols followed native shamans

- Others followed Lamaist Buddhism similar to their original beliefs

- Lamaist- made room for magic & super- natural, recognized Mongols as legitimate rulers, and Mongol khans as incarnations of the Buddha

II. The Mongol Empire
ii the mongol empire8

Mongols and Eurasian Integration

The Mongols and Trade

- linked lands more directly

- maintained a good courier network relaying news, information, & gov’t orders

- encouragement of travel and communication facilitated trade, diplomatic travel, missionary efforts and people to new lands

- safe trade routes allowed for more merchants to travel allowing for more commercial investment

-creating a safe direct link between China and Europe for the first time

II. The Mongol Empire
ii the mongol empire9

Diplomatic Missions

- diplomatic communication was essential, security of roads and travelers benefitted ambassadors as well as merchants.

Missionary Effects

- highways for missionaries as well as merchants (Islam, LamaistBuddhism, Nestorian Christians, Roman Catholics)

II. The Mongol Empire
ii the mongol empire10

Resettlement

- moving people into new lands

- often recruited specialized workers from their allies and placed them in areas among the empire where they were needed.

- Uigher Turks often used for their intellect

- often conquered people who were specialized were integrated into the empire

- this promoted Eurasian integration and exchanges of peoples from different societies

II. The Mongol Empire
ii the mongol empire11

Decline of the Mongols in Persia and China

Collapse of the Ilkhanate

- Persiaexcessive spending of treasury, overexploitation of peasantryreduced revenue

- Paper money attemptdrive metals to gov’tunsuccessfulmerchants closed shops

-Gov’t struggles when last Mongol ruler died the Ilkhanate essentially did too.

II. The Mongol Empire
ii the mongol empire12

Decline of the Yuan Dynasty

- did not have reserves to back up paper moneypopulation lost confidence prices rises to reflect diminished value

- internal fighting (power struggles, assassinations, civil wars)

Bubonic Plague

-facilitating trade and communication unknowingly spread the disease

- SW ChinaChina & C. AsiaSW Asia & Europe

- depopulation in China and labor shortages weakened the Mongol regime

II. The Mongol Empire
ii the mongol empire13

Surviving Mongol Khanates

- Despite their collapse in Persia and China Mongols did not completely disappear

- Khanate in Chaghatai prevailed in C. Asia

-Threat in NW borders of China

- Khanates of the Golden Horde continued to be successful near lands N of the Black and Caspian Sea.

-Mongol near Russia cont’d to be a threat until Josef Stalin forcibly moved them

II. The Mongol Empire
iii after the mongols

Tamerlane the Whirlwind

The Lame Conqueror

- the end of the Mongols created a political vacuum.

-Ming took over China

- Turkish Timur aka Tamerlame took over Persia

- Modeled himself after Chinggis Khan, steppe politics

III. After the Mongols
iii after the mongols1

Tamerlane’s Conquest

- Places invaded and used for taxes include: Persia, Afghanistan, Golden Horde, India, attempts in Asia & Anatolia, tried for China but died before it could be accomplished in 1405

- Like others he was a conqueror not a ruler, no real administration, only tribal leaders were allies, relied on overlords in his conquered territories

III. After the Mongols
iii after the mongols2

Tamerlane’s heirs

- no organization meant conflicts between

sons and grandsons.

-territory divided into four parts

The Foundation of the Ottoman Empire

Osman

-after the Mongols collapsed nomadic people moved into territories of Anatolia.

- Series of campaigns of conquest emerged one of its leaders was Osman

-1299 he declares independence from the Saljuq sultans and begins to create his own state

- His followers begin to be called Ottomans

III. After the Mongols
iii after the mongols3

Ottoman Conquests

- Places of Ottoman spread and conquest include: Dardanelles at Gallipoli on the Balkan peninsula and into the Byzantine Empire

The Capture of Constantinople

- captured by Sultan Mehmed II, aka “Mehmed the Conqueror”

- changed name to Istanbul, absorbed rest of Byzantine empire including Greece and the Balkan region as far as SW Asia, SE Europe, Egypt, and N Africa.

III. After the Mongols