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NEW IMPERIALISM: MOTIVES AND TACTICS Nineteenth-Century Empires. SUPERQUIZ Section II – PART 4 13 questions – 32.5%. French Colonial Expansion. Noted advocate of French colonial expansion: French politician _____________ Born:________; died:________ He served -- as premier

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new imperialism motives and tactics nineteenth century empires

NEW IMPERIALISM: MOTIVES AND TACTICSNineteenth-Century Empires

SUPERQUIZ

Section II – PART 4

13 questions – 32.5%

french colonial expansion
French Colonial Expansion
  • Noted advocate of French colonial expansion: French politician _____________

Born:________; died:________

  • He served

--as premier

--_____ terms during the - --_______Republic

  • opposed by ____&_____
    • Conservatives
    • Socialists

Jules Ferry

1832 1893

2

3rd

the speech
The Speech

National Assembly

  • Delivered before the ____________________in _____(mo.) of _____ (yr.)
  • directly combats the opponents of Ferry’s policies
  • states the (2)
    • economic and
    • political

imperative of French expansion

  • argues for the ____________________of current French policies
  • ____________voices are also heard in this speech
    • They reveal the basis for _________________ sentiment at the time

July 1883

moral justness

Critics

anticolonial

the speech itself act i jules ferry1
The Speech Itself - Act I: Jules Ferry1

embarrassment

  • Ferry starts by stating his _________________ at having to make such a long speech in front of the National Assembly
    • assures the “Chamber” that it is as strenuous for him as the individual members
    • thinks it his __________to summarize and condense the arguments, principles, motives, and interests for the justification of colonial expansion
  • Ferry promises to remain ___________&reasonable in his argument
    • Major concern = _________________ interests
    • policy of colonial expansion constitutes both a(n) __&__ sys.
      • economic
      • political

duty

moderate

continental

the system of colonial expansion
The system of Colonial Expansion
  • can be related to three ideas
  • These ideas are

“_________ideas, ideas of ____________ in its highest sense, and ideas of p______ and p____________”

economic

civilization

politics

patriotism

job 1 the economic ideas
Job #1: the economic ideas

industrial

  • 2 groups feel the need for EXPORT MARKETS:
    • The _______________populations of Europe
    • The ___________________________France particularly feels the strain
  • France needs EXPORT MARKETS because
    • _____________treaties of ________have caused problems
    • Markets recently open to France have shrunk (2 countries)
      • Germany has surrounded itself with economic barriers
      • The United States has recently made itself protectionist “in the most extreme sense”
  • Other industrialized countries are looking to France as an export market for their own manufactured goods

“rich and hard working”

Free trade

1860

slide7

Yo, Passy! I do not mean “mean to treat [you] with any ___________”

IRONY

  • Ferry speaks directly to
    • the _______________
    • including _____________,
      • who is present for this speech
      • well-respected , ___________ economics
  • Ferry speaks against
    • this previous school of economics
    • _________________of France ________________of England
    • also known as _____________

economists

Passy

old school

Jean Baptiste Say

Adam Smith

doctrinaires

Jules Ferry

say what doctrinaires
Say what, DOCTRINAIRES?

“the true export markets are the ____________________which furnish and assure them”

commercial treaties

Jean Baptiste Say

Adam Smith

commercial treaties
COMMERCIAL TREATIES

1860

  • Ferry believes that commercial treaties
    • WorkedAFTER ____ BEFORE industrial revolution hit full stride
    • DIDN’T work after
      • “the development of science and
      • the speeding up of _______________________________________”
  • Competition in the______________market
    • from ________________ did not ruin French agriculture
    • No active competition from these 2 countries:
      • America
      • India
  • France lived under commercial treaties with ____________and other great powers
    • ____________“became an industrial power” : _____ and _____
  • It takes TWO to TANGO!
    • The _______________________refuses to make treaties
      • Multiple French officials have reached this conclusion

communicaton

GRAIN

Odessa

England

Germany

1860 1883

United States

slide10

Point #2: “ideas of________________inthe highest sense”

civilization

  • point deserves equal attention, but
  • Ferry hopes to accomplish it “as quickly as possible”
  • Ferry condemns the ideas of M. Camille ____________________

Pellatan

slide11

‘‘What is this civilization which you impose with_________________? What is it but another form of

________________?

Don’t these populations, these inferior races, have the same _______________as you?

Aren’t they masters of their own houses?

Have they called upon you?

You come to them against their will, you offer them _______________, but not civilization.’’

cannonballs

barbarism

rights

violence

slide12

Point #2: “ideas of________________inthe highest sense”

civilization

  • Ferry condemns the ideas of M. Camille Pellatanas political ________________
  • These ideas do not represent politics nor ____________________
  • The FAR LEFT chimes in at this idea

METAPHYSICS

HISTORY

Ah-ah!

The FAR LEFT

slide13

“_______________races have _____________ rights over inferior races”

SUPERIOR

SUPERIOR

  • The FAR LEFT erupts!
    • M. Jules ___________ condemns Jules Ferry for his statement
    • France proclaimed the _______________________

MAIGNE

RIGHTS OF MAN

on the far left m de guilloutet
On the FAR LEFT: M. De Guilloutet

Ferry seeks to justify ___________ and the ________ trade

slavery

slave

slide15

The French have no right to impose commerce on the “blacks of equatorial Africa” if they are included in the ____________________

These blacks have not called upon French for ___________________

  • \

Dec. of the Rights of Man

commerce

the debate
THE DEBATE
  • M. Raoul Duval
    • states that _____________wishes to impose nothing upon these Africans
    • it is ____________who hopes to do so
  • M. Jules Maignedifferentiates between ____posing an idea and _____posing an idea
  • M. George Perinstates that, “in any case, you cannot bring about commerce by ________”

FRANCE

FERRY

PRO IM

force

slide17

SUPERIOR RACES have a______ to civilize INFERIOR RACES.

DUTY

  • \
  • The LEFT
  • The RIGHT and the EXTREME LEFT erupt in new interruptions

HOORAY!

point 3 ideas of politics and patriotism
Point #3 : “ideas of politics and patriotism”
  • Ferry borrows a “remarkably precise formulation” from distinguished writer M. Pelletan

‘‘It is a system which consists of seeking out ____________ in the Orient with a circumspect and peaceful seclusion which is actually imposed upon us in Europe.’’

compensations

slide19

I don’t like the use of the term

“______________.”

I’ll ward off any injury being inflicted on the French government “with all the force of [my] _______________”

  • \
  • THE LEFT & THE CENTER

compensation

patriotism

HOORAY!

certain considerations
Certain considerations ….
  • The current conditions of naval warfare have been altered
  • A warship can only carry _________days worth of coal
    • Without coal, a ship is dead in the water
  • France needs countless reprovisioning stations and shelters in and will hold them in (4 areas)
    • Saigon,
    • Tunisia,
    • the Mekong Delta,
    • and Madagascar
  • France also holds the Madagascar ports of
    • Diego-Suarez
    • Vohemar

14

slide21

Nations achieve greatness only through the ___________ they develop.

The “peaceful shining forth of __________________” does not make countries great in this day and age.

activities

institutions

  • Global ______________ is increasing
    • Some European powers strengthen ___________ and navy in order to compete effectively
    • Others focus on _______________ growth to overtake competitors
  • A policy of _____________ will only lead to cultural decline

competition

military

population

isolation

slide22

I cannot believe that the monarchy wants to follow a policy of ______________and _____________.

France does not follow a policy of “______and _______”

modesty

economic

reserve

Bread butter

slide23

Fallen monarchs wish to impose these values on France. The ____________ Party will NOT follow the examples of

__________ and the _______________

Republican

economic

Belgium

The Swiss Republic

slide24

France must be both a _______country and a ____ country. As much as possible, France must influence the destiny of ________________.

France has a duty to extend the French

__________,

__________,

__________,

______, and __________

as much as possible.

____

free great

Europe

economic

customs

flag

language

arms

genius

2 11 short answer pp 47 49 six score and seven years ago
2.11 SHORT ANSWER (pp. 47-49)Six score and seven years ago….
  • 1. What “three orders of ideas” does Jules Ferry say that he will address?
  • economic ideas,
  • ideas of civilization in its highest sense,
  • and ideas of politics and patriotism
slide26

2. According to Ferry what is French industry’s biggest need and why?

  • French industry needs export markets because many markets have closed to them, like
    • Germany and
    • the U.S.
slide27

3. Summarize the quote that Ferry reads from M. Camille Pellatan and describe how Ferry responds to the quote.

  • Pelletan calls into question the “civilization” that France pushes on non-Europeans with violence and force, arguing that all humans have basic rights.
  • Ferry responds by saying that the Declaration of the Rights of Man doesn’t apply to all.
  • He also reminds Pelletan that commerce is forced upon the non-Europeans as well.
slide28

4. According to Ferry, why do the French need ports in places like Madagascar and Tunisia?

  • Since a warship cannot carry more than 14 days’ worth of coal, it was necessary to have provision stations, shelters, ports for defense and revictualling.
2 12 either or pp 47 49 leno or conan
2.12 EITHER/OR (pp. 47-49)Leno or Conan?

________

  • 1. “Gentlemen, it (EXCITES, EMBARRASSES) me to make such a prolonged demand upon the gracious attention of the Chamber, but I believe that the (DUTY, PRIVILEGE) I am fulfilling upon this platform is not a (EASY, USELESS) one.”

___

_____

slide30

2. “…that need, felt more and more strongly by the industrial population of Europe…the need for (IMPORT, EXPORT) markets. Is this some kind of (JOKE, CHIMERA)? Is this a view of the future or is it not rather a (PRESSING, PASSING) need, and, we could say, the cry of our (AGRICULTURAL, INDUSTRIAL) population?”

____

____

______

______

slide31

3. “Gentlemen, I must speaker from a (HIGHER, LOWER) and more truthful (PLANE, GROUND). It must be stated openly that, in effect, (SOME, SUPERIOR) races have (RIGHTS, ADVANTAGE) over inferior (RACES, PEOPLE).”

____

____

____

____

____

slide32

4. “If the declaration of the rights of (HUMANS, MAN) was written for the blacks of equatorial Africa, then by what right do you impose regular (COMMERCE, RULE) upon them?”

__

_______

slide33

____

  • 5. “I (REFUTE, REPEAT) that superior races have a (RIGHT, ABILITY), because they have a duty. They have the duty to (CHRISTIANIZE, CIVILIZE) inferior races.”

____

____

slide34

6. “[The Republican Party] is quite (UNAWARE, AWARE) that one cannot impose upon France a political ideal conforming to that of nations like (INDEPENDENT, COLONIAL) Belgium and the (OTTOMAN EMPIRE, SWISS REPUBLIC).”

____

_______

_________

slide35

7. “Something else is needed for France that she cannot be merely a (FREE, AVERAGE) country, that she must also be a (POWERFUL, GREAT) country, exercizing all her rightful (POWER, INFLUENCE) over the destiny of Europe, that she ought to propagate this influence throughout the (WORLD, CONTINENT) and carry everywhere that she can her (LANGUAGE, CULTURE), her customs, her (FLAG, BANNER), her arms, and her (LEGACY, GENIUS).

__

____

____

____

____

__

____

projecting a greater france
PROJECTING A GREATER FRANCE
  • Section II
  • pp. 48-54
projecting a greater france1
“Projecting a Greater France”

Martin Evans

  • Written by ___________________
    • lecturer in French History at the University of ____________________
    • In ________, he authored The Memory of Resistance: French Opposition to the __________ War : 19_____-19______
    • as co-editor of the 1997 War and Memory in the _________________Century

Portsmith

1997

54 62

Algerian

Twentieth

the colonial exhibition preparations
The Colonial Exhibition: Preparations

Lyautey

77

  • Marshal Hubert _________
    • ______years old in 1931
    • born in ______ and died in ______
    • served as the
      • architect of ___________ colonization
      • _____________ of Morocco for a long period of time
  • The French regarded Lyautey as a legend
  • The white moustache and *______ haircut typified the muscular ______________________
  • Lyautey’srelentless energy carried over into the Exhibition itself

1934

1854

Moroccan

Governor

en brosse

The EPITOME of EMPIRE

colonial hero

*standing up like brush bristles

purposes of the exhibition
PURPOSES of the Exhibition

hearts minds

  • To touch the ________&________of its visitors
  • to excite the popular imagination through its emphasis on the
    • wondrous,
    • the exotic, and
    • the curious
  • stressedthe _____________necessity of empire
    • The ___________________________of 1929 further reinforced this point
    • Empire supposedly insulated France from the ____________________
  •  The empire functioned as a large ________________

economic

Wall Street Crash

Depression

trading bloc

projecting france s mission
PROJECTING FRANCE’S MISSION
  • The Exhibition also needed to project France’s _________________mission within its empire
    • Enlightenment philosophy cast colonization as a battle of ___________against _____________
      • The ___________fought against the ____________
      • with progress poised against “reactionary ________________and religious ______________”
    •  France needed to be held up as a _________ to which all should aspire

civilizing

light darkness

civilized UNcivilized

feudalism bigotry

model

slide42

‘‘Our protection, you must understand, delivered millions of men, women and children from the nightmare of slavery and death.

  • Do not forget that before we came, on the African continent the stronger dominated the weaker, a woman was but a beast and a child counted for little.
  • There where we found the vestiges of an old civilization with outdated beliefs…how much work we have accomplished.”

~ Visitor’s Guide to the French Colonial Exhibition, 1931

french gov t skillful marketing
French Gov’t: Skillful Marketing

stamp

  • Released of _____________collection illustrating imperial scenes to coincide with the opening
  • New media such as the _______&___________ stimulated popular interest
  • French citizens disseminated
    • prints,
    • postcards, and
    • photographs of the Exhibition
  • Posters proclaimed that visitors could undergo a “tour of the world in ___________________”

cinema broadcasting

a single day

slide45

The Exhibition cemented the new relationship between France and its colonies

  • The _______ Republic focused on building a ________________________
    • Bring _____________people into a global culture

Third

Greater France

110 million

the exhibition opened
The Exhibition Opened _________

May 6, 1931

50

  • 1931
    • ____thanniversary of Tunisia’s annexation
    • ____thanniversary of the invasion of Algeria
  • The _______________________

in ____________played host

  • Grounds covered ______hectares
  • Project prep took _____years
  • Crowds clapped and cheered as President _______________________arrived at the front gates of the Exhibition
  • A squadron of colonial _____________ in full uniform escorted the president
  • A _______-gun salute greeted President Doumerge

100

Bois de Vincennes

Paris

100

4

Gaston Doumergue

cavalry

100

the grounds
The Grounds
  • Great Hall
  • triumphant __________
  • gilded statue of France, depicting the country as a colonial genius
  • Visitors then followed carefully planned routes along
    • Tunisian marketplaces,
    • Moorish palaces, and
    • mud-brick fortresses

arch

the grounds1
THE GROUNDS
  • The _____________housed
    • countless items glorifying empire
    • ___________ illustrating and glorifying empire
  • Native__________andFrench dignitaries mingled before the opening address
  • Multiple speakers emphasized the symbolic importance of the Exhibition

Great Hall

frescoes

troops

a reconstruction of the cambodian temple of
A Reconstruction of the Cambodian Temple of __________________

Angkor Wat

  • high point of the Exhibition
  • the Exhibition’s most popular attraction
  • Entry needed to be restricted to _____________ to keep crowds in control

weekends

slide54

The floodlit façade of the temple dominated the Exhibition’s night skyline

  • symbolically demonstrate Lyautey’s need to thrill people
lyautey hoped to make empire familiar through and
Lyautey hoped to make empire familiar through ___________ and __________

entertainment exoticism

  • The Exhibition also housed a
    • zoo,
    • a fairground,
    • an aquarium
  • Entertainment
    • native musicians,
    • snake charmers, and
    • belly dancers
attitudinal goals
Attitudinal Goals
  • The political elite sought to instill ___________________in the French people
  • This superiority would bind the French people together, preventing the social divisions of the _____________________ from reoccurring
  • The monthly magazine ________________ did a special edition on the Exhibition

superiority

French Revolution

L’Illustration

the exhibition s events
The Exhibition’s events
  • Countries which sent exhibits:
    • Portugal,
    • the United States,
    • Belgium,
    • Brazil,
    • Italy,
    • the Netherlands, and
    • Denmark
speaker
SPEAKER:
  • Prince _________________
  • Mussolini’sminister of _________
  • claimed that the French Republic and Fascist Italy shared a common __________

endeavor

LanzodiScalea

colonies

ideological

slide59

The “__________________” of the ________ race, which, having now reached every corner of the world, has transformed, or is in the process of transforming, _______

continents into ____________regions.’’

Homeric Odyssey

white

barbaric

civilised

lanzo di scalea s french c ounterpart
Lanzo Di Scalea’s French Counterpart:

Paul Reynaud

  • _______________________
  • France’s minister of _______
  • aim of Exhibition = to integrate _______________into the French consciousness
  • The availability of overseas domains for popular consumption would widen horizons beyond __________
  • This new national ____________would be inextricably tied to empire

colonies

imperialism

Europe

identify

information please
INFORMATION, PLEASE!

information

  • The Exhibition focused on _______________
    • All aspects of colonial life had been painstakingly documented and recorded
      • Agricultural practices,
      • economic opportunities, and
      • tourism
  • Colonial Exhibition
    • focused on the empire’s contribution to the French ___________machine
    • 24,762 _______________troops died in World War I

military

West African

a huge success
A Huge Success

underground

  • Visitors reached the Exhibition via the specially extended ___________________
  • Roughly ______million people visited the Exhibition
  • Measuring the response is difficult
    • Some in attendance may have seen the pro-imperialist propaganda as a nuisance
    • The only opposition, however, was confined to __________________ and ______________________
  • Empire appears to have penetrated the public consciousness because of the Exhibition
    • Every French classroom had a map of the empire in pink in the 1920s and 1930s

8

Communists

Surrealists

pop culture
POP CULTURE
  • used the empire as a backdrop
    • The novels of ________________and
    • the songs of ___________featured

in the Exhibition

      • Edith Piaf’s album, ___________________
    • The films of
      • Jean Renoir,
      • Michel Bemheim, and
      • Pierre Colombier

also tied themselves to the Exhibition

Pierre Loti

Edith Piaf

Mon Legionnaire

colonial film took off following the french colonial exhibition1
Colonial film took off following the French Colonial Exhibition
  • The most famous film of this genre was
    • Film:__________________
    • Directed by: __________________
    • Year: _______box office success
    • based on a _______ pulp fiction novel
    • Starring _____________ as sharp-suited gangster Pépé

Pepe-le- Moko

Julian Duvivier

1937

1931

Jean Gabin

pepe le moko s plot
Pepe-le-Moko’s Plot

Algiers

  • Handsome and athletic Pépé ruled the __________underworld
    • Pépé attempted to avoid the police by hiding in the ________
  • Arab policeman _______________ served as Pépé’s adversary
    • The Arab’s wily and oriental nature contrasts with Pépé
  • Pépé’ssuperior understanding of French allows him to avoid Slimane
  • Over time, however, the smell and noise of the casbah takes a _____________________ toll on Pépé
      • Pépébecomes drunk and doles out drunken abuse to a blind Arab beggar
      • Another scene sees Pépé nostalgically reminiscing about working-class Paris
      • Pépéknows he will never see ___________ again

Casbah

Slimane

psychological

Paris

the message of pepe le moko
The Message of Pepe-le-Moko

chaos disorder

  • The contrast: the casbahrepresents nothing more than____________and ______________
  • At the end of the film, Pépé commits __________
  • The pessimistic ending emphasized the ________________message of the film; the casbah represents both _____________and_______withinthe French imagination
  • Pépé’sfate serves as a warning that the casbah and the French empire possesses a _____________
  • _____________and _____________can easily overwhelm outsiders
  • Shots of Arab _______________ occur repeatedly throughout the film…

suicide

ambivalent

fascination fear

Fatal power

Sexual passions violent urges

prostitutes

the facts behind the exhibition historical perspective
The Facts Behind the Exhibition: Historical Perspective

systematically

  • The French Empire had NEVER ________________ expanded as suggested
    • Settlers, fortune hunters, and soldiers _________________ increased the French Empire
    • The central government rarely had control of its own citizens during this period – 3 key factors motivating expansion:
      • Military glory,
      • economic exploitation, and
      • religious crusading

all served as motivating factors for French imperialists

  • In the early 1880s, France experienced internal hostility
    • The ___________attacked colonialism as a burden on France
      • This political party focused its attention on the recovery of ________________
      • Germany annexed this region of France after the _____________________War

of _______-_________

    • The Left criticized the Right’s policies as diverting attention from the _______________ struggle occurring in France at the time

hapharzardly

RIGHT

Alsace-Lorraine

Franco-Prussian

1870 1871

class

world war i a pivotal psychological moment for france
World War I :a pivotal psychological moment for France
  • The imperial contribution to the war effort created a bond between the colonies and the French home country
    • Colonies offered __________ and ____________to aid France during the war
  • Officials also believed that the war led to new mentalities
    • The monopolistic attitude of France toward its empire carried over into the ________and ________(decades)
    • France ruthlessly exploited its colonies for French war aims from _______to________

RECRUITS

TAXES

1920s 1930s

1914 1918

an economic perspective
An economic perspective
  • Government policy, commercial interests, and popular perceptions all influenced the new French awareness of empire in the 1920s and 1930s
    • The ______________ Ministry framed a general policy
    • Exploitation of the colonies became more
      • ruthless,
      • coherent, and
      • structured over these two decades
        • The move from primary extraction to modern extraction of iron and ___________________ represents one such change

Colonial

phosphates

france implemented on a grand scale
France implemented _______________on a grand scale

forced labor

  • The French applied harsh codes that stipulated each adult male had to work a certain number of days each year
    • work = _____________________
    • work in ___________ systems of rural production = idling
      • This inherent laziness was characteristic of native populations

labor for wages

non-cash

slide73

civilization

  • Refusing waged work meant refusing ________________
    • Thousands of Africans were forced into makeshift ___________
  • ________Africans in the ___________were
  • used to erect the Abidjan-Ferkessedegourailway line from ______ to ________
  • ___________laborers from the Ivory Coast were forced to do timber felling and plantation work

labor camps

42,000

Ivory Coast

1921 1930

16,000

conditions
Conditions
  • Conditions for forced laborers were degrading and crude
    • 127,250 Africans were press-ganged into building the equatorial railroad from _____________to__________
    • from ______to________
    • ___________of these laborers died from
      • undernourishment
      • disease
  • French colonial companies enjoyed fantastic ___________under these forced labor schemes
    • The prolonged absence of workers proved disastrous for _____________ populations
      • Local production completed collapsed in some regions

Brazzaville Pointe Noire

1921 1932

13,100

profits

indigenous

france liquidated local competition enclosed empire within the french economy
France liquidated local competition --enclosed empire within the French economy
  • ______Senegalesewere involved in export-import in 1900
    • By 1930, ________Senegaleseremained in the industry
    • Shows how the French government aided metropolitan commerce in penetrating the French colonies
  • Trading monopolies naturally resulted from these situations
    • By1939, _________of Senegalese exports went to the French empire
    • Colonial investment ______________ from 1930 to 1939

500

0

1/3

quadrupled

land best represents french intrusions into colonial society
Land best represents French intrusions into colonial society
  • The French acquired land in French Indochina
    • 104,000hectares in ___________
    • 168,400 hectares in ___________ by 1930 leaving over _______the local population landless
  • Rich settlers also seized land in Algeria
    • The French held 1.6 million hectares in ________
    • By _____, this figure rose to 2.7 million hectares
    • ______of the population thus owned _____ of the land thought to be profitably cultivable in Algeria

Tonkin

Annam

1/2

1890

1940

2%

1/3

tunisia and morocco
Tunisia and Morocco

North African

  • __________________agriculture became one of the most efficient systems in the world
  • Large landowners revolutionizedagricultural practices
    • These wealthy elites knew that France served as a _____________ market
  • Machinery used:
    • Tractors,
    • threshers, and
    • disc-ploughs
  • North Africa began exporting large amounts of
    • corn,
    • wheat,
    • peaches,
    • olive oil,
    • and WINE

captive

algerian wine
ALGERIAN WINE

4th

  • Algeria rose to be the _________ most important global wine producer
  • Wine represented the French genius that had cultivated the __________________
  • A myth persisted in France that North Africa had been ________________________ space prior to French colonization
  • PROBLEMS NORTH AFRICANS:
    • ___________ found vineyards deeply religiously offensive
    • Vineyards took away food _______________ for local consumption

desert

empty space

Muslims

resources

vineyards took away food resources for local consumption
Vineyards took away food resources for local consumption
  • Local agriculture already could not keep pace with the growing Algerian population
    • The population ______________ between 1856 and 1940
    • By 1940, the figure reached _______million
    • The introduction of French medicine reduced ______________________, causing the large population increase
  • Algerians desperately needed as much agricultural land as they could get
    • Only_____ofAlgerians owned a farm of more than 100 hectares at this point in time
    • Many Algerians survived on a diet of
      • couscous,
      • wild artichokes, and
      • mallow stems

tripled

6.5

infant mortality

1%

colonial opposition
Colonial opposition

Great Depression

  • The ________________weighed down the French Empire
  • Indigenous populations suffered even worse under the French government’s ruthless protection of ___________interests
    • Social divisions came down along ___________lines, exacerbating inequality
  • In North Africa, a large _______exodus to major ________ cities led to the construction of miles of ______________
    • This countryside flight resulted in the ______ FAMINE
    • North Africans termed this event the terrible year of hunger
      • Locals dropped dead on the side of the road from starvation
      • limited relief measures
        • Most attempted to send the dead back to their hometowns in lorry-loads

settlers’

racial

rural

coastal

shantytowns

1937

french journalist
French journalist: ______________

ALBERT CAMUS

  • Tried to shake French settlers out of their indifference to the poor ___________________
  • graphic description of the starvation in the Algerian _____________Mountains
    • Children fought with dogs for garbage
    • Algerians had bodies in which muscles were wasting away
    • Infant mortality skyrocketed as high as ________
    • Half the population survived on grass and roots

Algerians

Kabyle

80%

open rebellion
OPEN REBELLION
  • Opposition soon transitioned into open rebellion
    • The French government savagely quashed rebellions in
      • _______________(1925),
      • _______________(1926),
      • _______________(1930)
    • Disaffection continued through the 1930s
      • Social divisions continued to widen as ____________________failed
  • Colonial propaganda of a fraternal, generous Republic did not accurately represent the French Empire
    • Substantial _______and______barriersto assimilation remained
    • Only a handful of citizens of the French Empire obtained ______________________
  • The 1936 election of the leftist__________________
    • ushered in hopes of a change in the colonies;
    • however, it soon fell apart

Morocco

Syria

Indochina

assimilation

cultural racial

French citizenship

Popular Front

france s affinity for north africa
France’s Affinity for North Africa
  • NOT shared by COLONISTS
  • France had absorbed
    • Algeriain _________
    • annexed Tunisiaa protectorate in_________
    • Moroccofollowed the same path as Tunisia in _________
  • The ______________of Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco to France produced the strongest ties of Loyalty
    • Settlers also established a large presence in these three colonies
  • A ____ Popular Front bill in Algeria offered citizenship to _______Muslims
    • At the time, the Muslim population numbered ____________
    • Demonstrations for reform ensued
      • Settlers sabotaged these small-scale concessions
    • A new atmosphere of violence and tension emerged
  • The _______________________was banned from Algeria in _______
    • This nationalist party’s ban sparked a series of _____________________

on settler farms

  • Settlers responded with force
    • Nationalistsperceived attacks as a rebellion against those who had taken their land

1848

1881

1912

proximity

25,000

1936

6 million

North African Star

1937

arson attacks

opposition spread to morocco
Opposition Spread to Morocco
  • PROPAGANDA vs. REALITY
    • Propaganda: idyllic cooperation between the French and Moroccans
    • Reality: conflict
  • Colonial authorities declared the _________courts of appeal and tribunals beyond __________courts’ jurisdiction in 1930
    • Nationalists within the ________________Committee considered this action an attack on their identity
    • The 1930 decrees undermined Islam through the creation of a false divide between Arab and Berber
  • Moroccans began demanding _______________________
    • Social agitation fueled these calls for political action
    • Moroccan exports fell by _______between 1929 and 1936
    • Rural incomes fell by ____during this same period
    • Demands from political elite found plenty of public support

Berber

Muslim

Moroccan Action

self-government

1/2

60%

tunisian opposition
Tunisian opposition
  • Primarily________________
  • The________________
    • __________________________________party
    • began pressing for moderate reform by___________
    • called for the election of a ________________
    • ultimately sought Tunisian ______________________

middle class

Destour

Liberal Constitution

1920

parliament

independence

tunisian opposition1
Tunisian opposition
  • The ________________ party emerged in 1934
    • young lawyer _______________________ headed the party
  • militant opposition
    • Refused_____________________
    • _____________________________
  • Strikesoccurred in Tunis in__________asa protest against the French government

Neo-Destour

HabibBourguiba

to pay taxes

Boycotted French goods

1937

french response follows pattern
French Response Follows Pattern
  • These settlers saw colonial opposition as foreign powers manipulating a minority of colonial subjects
    • Germany,
    • Italy, and
    • Russia

were all targets of this supposed foreign power manipulation

  • The French
    • arrested Bourguiba
    • outlawed the Neo-Destour
  • The ___________________________________ was also dissolved

Moroccan Action Committee

the importance of empire
The importance of empire

brutality

  • French______________in crushing North African revolts demonstrates importance of empire by the late 1930s
  • France felt increasingly __________________ from the international scene
  • The empire served as a
    • political,
    • economic, and
    • emotional

….source of hope

isolated

the pressure of empire
The PRESSURE of EMPIRE

the Italian

  • November 30, 1938: _____________ parliament called for the annexation of ____________
    • _____________demonstrators carried their exhibition of the news onto Roman streets
    • The French press quickly instigated a _________________

TUNISIA campaign

      • Prime Minister _____________________gave numerous speeches and radio addresses in ______________and____________
          • Daladier tried to stiffen French national resolve by reminding the French people that they were NOT ALONE!
          • The entire French_____________wouldsave France
            • France could rely on the ______ million people of the empire
            • France itself had only______ million people

Tunisia

Fascist

hands-off

Edouard Daladier

December 1938 January 1939

empire

110

42

french humiliation
FRENCH HUMILIATION
  • Stirring nationalist resolve did not successfully prevent the coming catastrophe
    • The Germans defeated the French in six weeks, from _______ to ______ of _____
      • The French endured ______years of German occupation and national humiliation
  • France lost its status as a great power during _____________________

May June 1940

4

World War II

the legacy of empire
The legacy of empire
  • Empire became truly important to the French people as _________________ movements in the colonies came into being
  • The Colonial Exhibition is nothing more than a ________________of the French Empire
    • The event gave the impression of an enduring and permanent political entity
    • In fact, the political and social forces that ended colonialism in the 1950s and 1960s had already been defined

nationalist

false climax

2 13 exclusions pp 49 52 one of these things is not like the others
2.13 EXCLUSIONS (pp. 49-52)One of these things is not like the others.
  • Economic exploitation
  • Religious crusade
  • Military glory
  • Central Government Initiative
  • All are motivations for 19th century French colonization
2 13 exclusions pp 49 52 one of these things is not like the others1
2.13 EXCLUSIONS (pp. 49-52)One of these things is not like the others.
  • To excite the popular imagination
  • To stress the economic importance of
  • empire
  • To make empire seem exotic and intangible
  • To project France’s mission to civilize the non-European world
  • Others were Lyantey’s goals with the Colonial Exhibition
2 13 exclusions pp 49 52 one of these things is not like the others2
2.13 EXCLUSIONS (pp. 49-52)One of these things is not like the others.
  • aquarium
  • zoo
  • fairground
  • circus
  • Others were found within the Colonial Exhibition.
2 13 exclusions pp 49 52 one of these things is not like the others3
2.13 EXCLUSIONS (pp. 49-52)One of these things is not like the others.
  • postcards
  • photos
  • prints
  • film
  • monthly magazine
  • Others were ways in which the exhibition was publicized via new media techniques
2 13 exclusions pp 49 52 one of these things is not like the others4
2.13 EXCLUSIONS (pp. 49-52)One of these things is not like the others.
  • novels of Pierre Loti
  • songs of Edith Piaf
  • films of Jean Renoir
  • posters of Pierre Colombier
  • Others are art and media that used empire as their backdrop
2 13 exclusions pp 49 52 one of these things is not like the others5
2.13 EXCLUSIONS (pp. 49-52)One of these things is not like the others.
  • Pepe
  • Slimane
  • Paulo
  • a blind Arab beggar
  • Others are characters in JuilanDuvivier’sPepe-le-Moko
2 14 question answer pp 49 52 just the facts please
2.14 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp. 49-52)Just the facts, please.
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.

4 years

Gaston Doumergue

May 6, 1931

Bois de Vincennes in Paris

slide99

It covered 110 hectares.

  • 5
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.

They talked about it and anticipated it for weeks.

Escorted by a squadron of colonial cavalry in full dress.

A 100 gun salute

slide100

Sumptuous frescoes glorifying the French empire.

Brazil, Belgium, Denmark, U.S., Italy, Netherlands, Portugal

Prince LanzadiScalea, Mussolini’s Minster of Colonies

Paul Reynaud

slide101

Marshal Hubert Lyautey

Triumphal arch & gilded statue of France a colonial genius

Mudbrick fortresses, Moorish palaces, and Tunisian marketplaces

A reconstruction of the Cambodian temple of AnkgorWat

slide102

Documentation of colonial life,

figures of colonial troops killed in WWI

8 million

It was a success, but it’s difficult to

measure how people responded.

2 15 fill in the blank p 52
2.15 FILL IN THE BLANK (p. 52)
  • JuilanDuvivier’sPepe-le-Moko is the epitome of the _______________________ of _______________________ film. When it was released in _______________________, the film was a big _______________________ success.

genre

colonial

1937

ox office

2 15 fill in the blank p 521
2.15 FILL IN THE BLANK (p. 52)
  • The film is based on a ___________________ book.
  • Jean ______________________ portrays a gangster, Pepe, “an athletic and handsome” man who is “_______________________ of the Algiers _______________________ underworld”. His nemesis, _______________________, is an Arab Policeman.

1931

Gabin

King

casbah

Slimane

2 15 fill in the blank p 522
2.15 FILL IN THE BLANK (p. 52)
  • Pepe is able to evade Slimane until he becomes psychologically _______________________ by the noise and smell of the casbah; even to the point that he verbally abuses a blind Arab _______________________. Pepe longs for the peace and quiet of the working-class world in _______________________ he once knew.

troubled

beggar

Paris

2 15 fill in the blank p 523
2.15 FILL IN THE BLANK (p. 52)
  • The movie illustrates how the French were fascinated with but also afraid of the casbah. The _______________________ is clear—the casbah—and the empire too—are places of sexual passion and _______________________ and as thus are _______________________, powerful entities where _______________________ do not belong.

warning

violence

dangerous

outsiders

slide107

Every fit male had to work

for a set number of days each year.

To refuse wage work was to refuse

civilization and thus be

transported to a forced labor camp.

.

Many workers die from disease and malnourishment.

Prolonged absence of workers meant the collapse of local

production.

slide108

Greater agricultural efficiency led to surplus of exports of wheat,

corn, peaches, olive oil, and wine

Led to a dramatic rise in population that local agriculture couldn’t

keep up with

Most Algerians had little or no land, and hunger became

commonplace.

ordering
ORDERING
  • France annexes Tunisia
  • France annexes Morocco
  • Election of the left-wing Popular Front
  • Great famine in North Africa
  • The liberal constitution party in Tunisia, the Destour, begins to press for reform
  • The more radical Neo-Destour party arises in Tunisia
  • Open rebellion against French colonial rule arises in Syria
  • French prime minister gives speeches and radio addresses about the importance of France’s imperial holdings
  • 1 - 1881
  • 2 - 1912
  • 6 - 1936
  • 7 - 1937
  • 3 - 1920
  • 5 - 1934
  • 4 - 1926
  • 8 - 1938-39