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What Is Psychological Abnormality?.
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1. Abnormal Psychology: Past and Present What is abnormal psychology?
The field devoted to the scientific study of abnormal behavior to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning
2. What Is Psychological Abnormality? “The Four Ds”
Deviance – Different, extreme, unusual, perhaps even bizarre (context)
Distress – Unpleasant and upsetting to the person
Dysfunction – Interfering with the person’s ability to conduct daily activities in a constructive way
Danger – Posing risk of harm
3. The Elusive Nature of Abnormality 4 D’s often are vague
Few categories of abnormality are as clear-cut as they seem; most continue to be debated by clinicians
4. What Is Treatment? Treatment, or therapy, is a procedure designed to change abnormal behavior into more normal behavior
It, too, requires careful definition
5. What Is Treatment? Three essential features:
Sufferer seeks relief
A trained healer, is accepted by the sufferer (and his or her social group)
Healer & Sufferer try to produce certain changes in the sufferer’s emotional state, attitudes, and behavior
6. What Is Treatment? Despite this straightforward definition, clinical treatment is surrounded by conflict and confusion:
Lack of agreement about goals or aims
Lack of agreement about successful outcome
Lack of agreement about failure
Are clinicians seeking to cure? To teach?
Are sufferers patients (ill) or clients (having difficulty)?
7. How Was Abnormality Viewed and Treated in the Past? Yearly estimates in U.S. residents needing treatment:
30% of adults
19% of children
most people have difficulty coping at various times
8. Ancient Views and Treatments Ancient societies
abnormal behavior --- evil spirits
Cure : trephination and exorcism
10. Greek and Roman Views and Treatments 500 B.C. to 500 A.D.
Hippocrates taught that illnesses had natural causes
He looked to an unbalance of the four humors
His suggested treatment attempted to “rebalance”
11. Europe in the Middle Ages: Demonology Returns 500 – 1350 A.D.
Abnormality – good vs. evil
Abnormal behavior apparently increased
Demonological treatments re-emerged
At the close of the Middle Ages, demonology and its methods began to lose favor again
12. The Renaissance and the Rise of Asylums 1400 – 1700 A.D.
German physician Johann Weyer believed that the mind was as susceptible to sickness as the body
The care of people with mental disorders continued to improve in the positive atmosphere
13. The Renaissanceand the Rise of Asylums Across Europe, religious shrines were devoted to the humane and loving treatment
Rise of asylums – institutions whose primary purpose was care of the mentally ill
The intention was good care, but because of overcrowding they became virtual prisons
14. The Nineteenth Century: Reform and Moral Treatment 1800 – treatment improved again
– care that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful techniques
U.S. - Benjamin Rush (father of American psychiatry)
Dorothea Dix (Boston schoolteacher) were the primary proponents of moral treatment
15. The Nineteenth Century: Reform and Moral Treatment Step Backwards early 1900s
Money and staff shortages
Declining recovery rates
Lack of more effective treatment for severely mentally ill
Emergence of prejudice
long-term hospitalization became the rule once again
16. The Early Twentieth Century: Dual Perspectives As the moral movement was declining
The Somatogenic Perspective
Abnormal functioning has physical causes
The Psychogenic Perspective
Abnormal functioning has psychological causes
17. The Early Twentieth Century: The Somatogenic Perspective Physical factors (like fatigue) are responsible for mental dysfunction
i.e. link between syphilis and general paresis
18. The Early Twentieth Century: The Psychogenic Perspective Hypnotism:
Friedrich Mesmer and hysterical disorders
Sigmund Freud’ s theory of psychoanalysis
By the early twentieth century, psychoanalytic theory and treatment were widely accepted throughout the Western world
19. Current Trends Have we come a long way?
43% believe that people bring disorders upon themselves
35% consider mental health disorders to be caused by sinful behavior
20. How Are People with Severe Disturbances Cared For? Since the1950s, New medications:
rise in outpatient care
22. What Are Today’s Leading Theories and Professions? Psychoanalytic
24. Research in Abnormal Psychology Research is the systematic search for facts through the use of careful observations and investigations
25. Research in Abnormal Psychology Difficulties:
Measuring unconscious motives
Assessing private thoughts
Monitoring mood changes
Calculating human potential
Consider culture, race, and gender of Subjects
26. The Case Study
27. The Correlational Method
29. The Experimental Method Three Important Variable types:
30. Causal Questions in Clinical Research Does factor X cause a disorder?
Is cause A more influential than cause B?
Does treatment X alleviate a disorder?
31. The Experimental Method Guard against confounds:
A control group