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' Generations to come, it may be, will scarcely believe that such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth' - Einstein, 1944.

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'Generations to come, it may be, will scarcely believe that such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth'

- Einstein, 1944

One of the greatest men that ever walked on the face of this earth. Mahatma Gandhi. The man largely responsible for India's freedom through Ahimsa from the imperial British rule after approximately 190 years.

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GANDHI’S IDEALS

TRUTH

SATYAGRAHA

AHIMSA

SWARAJ

truth
TRUTH
  • “… 'BEING TRUE' MEANS KEEPING ONE'S IDEALS, SOUL, AND THOUGHT INTACT OF ANY PROVOCATIONS AND IN ANY CIRCUMSTANCES…”
  • WHAT THEN IS TRUTH?
  • THAT IT IS WHAT THE VOICE WITHIN TELLS YOU.
  • HUMAN MIND IS NOT THE SAME FOR ALL, IT FOLLOWS THAT WHAT MAY BE TRUTH FOR ONE MAY BE UNTRUTH FOR ANOTHER,
satyagraha
SATYAGRAHA
  • (SATYA) IMPLIES TRUTH
  • (AGRAHA) FIRMNESS
  • ITS ROOT MEANING IS HOLDING ON TO TRUTH, HENCE TRUTH-FORCE.
  • GANDHI ALSO CALLED IT LOVE-FORCE OR SOUL-FORCE.
  • GANDHI ADVOCATED “SELF-SUFFERING” AS A MEANS OF PROTEST AGAINST ANY WRONG.
ahimsa
AHIMSA
  • LITERALLY SPEAKING, AHINSA MEANS NON-VIOLENCE.
  • BUT IT HAS MUCH HIGHER, INFINITELY HIGHER MEANING.
  • NOT TO OFFEND ANYBODY BY ACTION OR THOUGHT INCLUDING OWN ENEMY
  • WHO FOLLOWS THIS DOCTRINE, THERE ARE NO ENEMIES.
swaraj
Swaraj
  • If India got freedom from the British by brute force, political liberation would be achieved. This is one meaning of swaraj or self-rule, a mere absence of external rule.
  • but there is another deeper meaning which in Gandhi's eyes was more important.
  • Another side of Swaraj was a development and liberation of self through "self-restraint, self-regulation, and self-dependence".
  • Gandhi's Swaraj included spiritual freedom.
  • For the Indian masses, Gandhi also presented Swaraj as "a movement of self-purification."
swaraj7
Swaraj
  • He meant that to achieve spiritual liberation, the evils in Indian Society - Hindu-Muslim clashes, untouchability, and unequal distribution of wealth - would have to be conquered and eliminated.
  • Swaraj was the banner under which Gandhi and his contemporary Indian leaders appealed to the minds of the Indian people.
swaraj8
Swaraj
  • There is another idea that is linked in Gandhi's thought to Swaraj and that is Swadeshi, which has a range of meaning such as self-sufficiency, self-reliance and even patriotism.
  • Specific expressions of swadeshi during the freedom struggle included production of khadi to boycott of foreign cloth.
  • He also emphasized on the importance of change with time and introducing new ideas while moving on path of development.
swaraj9
Swaraj
  • The Swaraj which was achieved at independence in 1947 was not true swaraj, in a number of respects.
  • The greatest disaster was partition of two nations on religious basis.
  • People who had been neighbours and friends became enemies.
  • And enmity increased with passage of time to a explosive situation
true swaraj
True Swaraj
  • It would be characterised by a relatively
  • strong base of nearly self-sufficiency through small scale local production activities,
  • self-governing villages containing independent, well-educated individuals.
  • All adults would elect a small body (panchayat) to deal with disputes and crime, and also relevant political and economic matters.
  • Higher education, certain industries and services which are desirable but are unable to be provided at village level would be provided by the larger units.
moving away from true swaraj
Moving away from True Swaraj
  • Today most societies are urban,
  • In the foreseeable future it seems unlikely that there will be a return to the village as the centre of life for most people.
  • The increasing size of private companies whose power extends around the globe and whose purpose is primarily to perpetuate their own existence is one that Gandhi surely would have been highly critical of.
  • The environmental impact of economic activity has become much greater in the 50 years since Gandhi's death,
  • low impact lifestyle is implicit in Gandhi's approach.
  • Gandhi's starting point was the individual self development to be extended to groups of increasing size up to the whole world community.
important quotes
Important quotes
  • Nature provides enough for everybody's needs but not for anybody's greed
  • "Recall the face of the poorest and the weakest man whom you may have seen and ask yourself if the step you contemplate is going to be of any use to him.
  • In other words, will it lead to Swaraj for the hungry and spiritually starving millions?"
need for body protection
Need for body protection
  • Protection of body from the fury of weather (Heat, cold, rain) must be need of human being from the beginning
  • There must be use of animal hides and skin for body covering
  • Conversion of plant fibres into ropes, twisting of plant fibres into yarn and interlacement into fabric must have come through creative minds of human being.
  • These innovations over a period of time led to the development of fibre spinning and weaving processes for fabric manufacture. Obviously through hand spinning and hand weaving operations.
rich textile heritage
Rich textile heritage
  • Records indicate that cotton was cultivated in India 8000 years ago. And the art of spinning and weaving was practiced in India 5000 years ago
  • All the fabrics which were produced before industrial revolution in 18th century were hand spun and hand woven
  • India has a very rich a tradition of producing exclusive hand spun hand woven fabrics even today.
  • Such fabrics were named by Mahatma Gandhi as khadi fabric during the Swadeshi movement for freedom.
industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution
  • 1771 first cotton mill in England was established followed by dozens of similar mills.
  • To keep the mills running cotton was imported from India at cheap rates
  • In return England exported woven fabric to India at high price
  • As a result no cotton was available for hand spinning and weaving in India.
  • millions of spinners and weavers throughout India were rendered unemployed.
  • Deprived of the only means to earn their livelihood
  • Left free to die of starvation.
swadeshi movement
Swadeshi Movement
  • The unchecked deterioration of Indian economy and fast spreading of misery amongst Indian masses, specially artisans attracted the attention of patriotic leaders
  • In 1876 Dadabhai Naoroji published his famous book “The poverty of India” exposing the deprivation of Indian people by Britishers and the miserable existence of Indian people at the verge of starvation.
  • All the leaders felt that India’s acute poverty was the direct result of destruction of cottage industries by British regime.
  • The nationalist leaders urged the people to use only Indian goods to the exclusion of British goods and gave a clarion call for swadeshi.
khadi
Khadi
  • Mahatma Gandhi is not only the father of nation but father of khadi.
  • In 1908 he discovered Charakha (Spinning wheel) in London during discussion with fellow Indians regarding the social and political conditions in India.
  • “I saw as in a flash that without spinning wheel there was no swaraj (Self rule) I knew at once that every one has to spin”
  • He had a clear vision of his programme of reviving ancient industry for economic gains and also as a tool of political awakening and achieving freedom.
  • He returned to India in 1915 during which swadeshi movement and boycott of foreign goods specially cloth was going on.
khadi continued
Khadi (continued…)
  • In 1919 Gandhi launched the Khadi programme in the country.
  • In 1920 Indian national congress decided to encourage khadi producing activities.
  • 1925 All India spinners association or charkha sangh was established.
  • Gandhi firmly believed that charkha was his best gift to the nation contributing to its all sided development economic, political, social and moral
  • I may deserve the curse for many mistakes of omission and commission but I am confident of earning blessings of nation for suggesting a revival of charkha, because every revolution of wheel spins peace, goodwill and love.
after independence
After independence
  • The importance of khadi continued even after independence in 1947
  • 1948 Government policy on cottage and village industries including khadi.
  • 1953 All India Khadi and Village Industries Board
  • 1957 Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)
  • Responsibility: to plan, organize and implement the programmes of promoting and developing khadi and village industries
present status
Present status
  • KVIC works under the administrative control of the Ministry of Agro and Rural Industries.
  • KVIC has a 10 member commission at the policy making level.
  • one of whom is Chairman),
  • Two expert members and
  • Two official members (the Chief Executive Officer and the Financial Advisor).
  • The Chairman, CEO and FA are full time members.
  • The head quarters of KVIC is in Mumbai
  • It has its State and Regional Offices in all the States.
  • It has training, production and Sales centres through out the country.
present status21
Present status
  • KVIC is having 30 State Khadi and Village Industries Board,
  • over 3500 institutions and
  • over 29000 co-operative societies.
  • There are around 14200 sales outlets in the country in KVI Sector.
  • It is having 46% women participation in its activities.
  • 30% beneficiaries belongs to SC/ST.
  • KVI Boards assist over 5 lakh artisans.
  • It has reached 2.35 lakhs villages.
village industries
Village Industries
  • Group-I : Mineral based industry
  • Group-II : Forest based industry
  • Group-III : Agro based and food industry
  • Group-IV : Polymer and chemical based industry
  • Group-V : Engineering & non- conventional energy industry
  • Group-VI : Textile industry
  • Group-VII : Service industry
group i mineral based industry
Group-I : Mineral based industry

1. Cottage pottery industry

2. Lime Stone, Lime shell and other Lime products industry

3. Stone Crushing, Crushing Carving and Engraving for Temples and Buildings.

4. Utility articles made out of stone

5. Slate and Slate Pencil making

6. Manufacture of Plaster of Paris

7. Utensil Washing Power

8. Fuel Bequeathing

9. Jewellery out of Gold, Silver, Stone, Shell and Synthetic materials.

10. Manufacture of Gulal-Rangoli

11. Manufacture of Bangles

12. Manufacture of Paints, Pigments, Varnishes and Distemper

group ii forest based industry
Group-II : Forest Based Industry

13. Hand Made Paper

14. Manufacture of Katha

15. Manufacture of Gums and Resins

16. Manufacture of Shellac

17. Cottage Match Industry, Manufacture of Fire Works&Agarbatties

18. Bamboo and Cane Works

19. Manufacture of Paper Cups, Plates, Bags & other paper containers

20. Manufacture of exercise book binding, envelope making register making including all other stationery items made out of paper

21. Khus tattis and broom making

22. Collection, Processing and Packing of Forest Products

23. Photo Framing

24. Manufacture of Jute Products (under Fibre Industry)

group iii agro based and food industry
Group-III : Agro Based And Food Industry

25. Processing, Packing and Marketing of Cereals, Pulses Spices, Condiments, Masala etc.

26. Palmgur and other palm products industry

27. Manufacture of Cane gur and khadisari

28. Bee keeping

29. Fruit and vegetables processing, Preservation and Canning, including Pickles

30. Ghani oil industry

31. Fibre other than Coir

32. Collection of Forest Plants and fruits for Medicinal purpose

33. Processing of Maize and Ragi

34. Pith work - Manufacture of Pith Mata and garlands etc.

35. Cashew Processing

36. Leaf Cup Making

37. Menthol

group iv polymer and chemical based industry
Group-IV: Polymer and Chemical Based Industry

38. Flaying, curing & tanning of hides and skins and ancillary industries connected with same and Cottage Leather Industry

39. Cottage Soap Industry

40. Manufacture of Rubber Goods (dipped latex products)

41. Products out of Rexins, PVC etc.

42. Horn and Bone including ivory products

43. Candle, Camphor and sealing wax making

44. Manufacture of Packaging items of Plastics

45. Manufacture of Bindi

46. Manufacture of Mehendi

47. Manufacture of Essential Oils

48. Manufacture of Shampoos

49. Manufacture of Hair Oils

50. Detergents and Washing Power making (Non-toxic)

group v engineering and non conventional energy industry
Group-V: Engineering and Non-Conventional Energy Industry

51. Carpentry

52. Black-smithy

53. Manufacture of House-hold Aluminum Utensils

54. Manufacture & use of manure & methane (gobar gas from cow dung & other waste products as flesh of dead animals, night soil etc.

55. Manufacture of Paper, Clips, Safety Pins, Stove pins etc.

56. Manufacture of decorative bulbs, bottles, glass etc.

57. Umbrella assembling

58. Solar and Wind Energy implements

59. Manufacture of hand made Utensil out of Brass

60. Manufacture of hand made Utensils out of Copper

61. Manufacture of hand made Utensils out of Bell Metal

62. Other articles made out of Brass, Copper and Bell Metal

63. Production of Radios

64. Production of Cassette Player whether or not fitted with Radio

group v engineering and non conventional energy industry30
Group-V: Engineering and Non-Conventional Energy Industry

65. Production of Cassette Recorder with or without Radio

66. Production of Voltage Stabilizer

67. Manufacture of Electronic Clocks and Alarm Time Pieces

68. Carved wood and Artistic Furniture making

69. Tin Smithy

70. Motor Winding

71. Wire Net Making

72. Iron Grills Making

73. Manufacture of Rural transport vehicles such as Carts, Bullock Carts, Small Boats, Assembly of Bi-cycles, Cycle-rickshaw, motorized carts etc.

74. Manufacture of Musical Instruments

group vi textile industry
Group-VI : Textile Industry

75. Polyvastra (Blended fabric)

76. Manufacture of Lok-Vastra Cloth

77. Hosiery

78. Tailoring and Preparation of readymade Garments

79. Batik work

80. Toys and Doll making

81. Thread Balls and Woolen Balling, Lacchi making

82. Embroidery

83. Manufacture of Surgical Bandages

84. Stove Wicks

group vii service industry
Group-VII : Service Industry

85. Laundry

86. Barber

87. Plumbing

88. Servicing of Electrical wiring & Electronic domestic appliances and equipments

89. Repairs of diesel engines, pump sets etc.

90. Tyre Vulcanizing Unit

91. Agriculture servicing for sprayers, insecticides, pump sets etc.

92. Hiring of sound systems like loudspeaker, amplifier, mike etc.

93. Battery charging

94. Art Board Painting

95. Cycle repair shops and

96. Masonry.