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  1. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Webinar 3Collecting and Storing Your Data Teleconference: Toll-free Dial-in: 1-877-323-2005 Local Dial-in: 416-472-5080 Global Toll-free: 800-6059-2969 Conference ID: 2419719# Please keep your phones on mute Moderator: Jaspreet Ahuja ahujajs@mcmaster.ca

  2. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Webinar 3Collecting and Storing Your Data Michelle Freeman RN, PhD Assistant Professor, University of Windsor Nursing Health Services Research Unit (NHSRU) McMaster University Date: December 12, 2012 Time: Noon- 1:00PM (EST)

  3. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Session Objectives • Review definition of primary data • Describe purpose, design and survey development • Explain special considerations when using a web-based survey to collect primary data • Describe advantages/disadvantages of web-based survey for primary database • Discuss next steps with database

  4. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Types of Data Primary data - collected to answer a specific research question. Secondary data– collected by some other user. Administrative data –secondary data collected for non-research purposes but may used to answer specific research questions. Source:Wunsch, H., Harrison, D., Rowan, K. (2005). Health Services Research in critical care using administrative data. Journal of Critical Care, 20: 264-269.

  5. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Primary Databases • Result from individual research projects • Include many variables and/or themes • Can be standardized for use by other investigators to ask different questions

  6. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Study Employment Goals, Expectations, and Migration Intentions of Nursing Graduates in a Canadian Border City

  7. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Why primary databases to study nurse migration? • Limited research using primary databases • Canada not immune to its nurses migrating for work • “…little understanding of the reason why they leave to work in USA and this problem has received virtually no attention as a research or policy issue” (McGillis Hall et al., 2009, p. 204) • No comprehensive data source in either US or Canada to track number of Canadian RNs currently employed in US

  8. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Why primary databases to study nurse migration? • US the largest importer of nurses and Canada is an important source country especially for border states (Aiken et al., 2004) • Border communities major supplier of nurses for US hospitals as “commuter migrants” but numbers unknown • Projected nursing shortages • Gap in understanding migration intentions of new graduate nurses and factors pushing them from Canada

  9. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Study Study Purpose • What are the migration intentions of these graduates? • What factors (values, expectations, personal characteristics and other) influence their migration intentions? • Does the Value-Expectancy framework contribute to our understanding of these factors? Sample BScN students graduating in June 2011 in a Canadian border community (N= 281) Method Mixed methods • Web-based survey • Interviews

  10. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Value-Expectancy (V-E)Framework (De Jong and Fawcett, 1981) • Migrant makes a conscious decision to migrate or stay by weighing values (goals) against the expectation of obtaining them • Measure value • Measure expectancy for different locations • Subjective probability that valued outcome will be obtained • Identifies migration intention for different locations

  11. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Study Framework Conceptual Categories (De Jong & Fawcett, 1981) • Wealth • Status • Comfort • Stimulation • Autonomy • Affiliation • Morality Conceptual Categories for Nurse Migrants • Economic rewards • Professional development • Healthy work environment • Safe living and working environment • Opportunity for adventure • Autonomy in choice of workplace • Social support • Support of ethical practice

  12. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Study Framework

  13. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Survey Design Goal • Accurate primary database with no missing data and high response rate • Obtain volunteers for interviews • Ability to track respondents to determine if they actually migrated

  14. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Survey Design: Considerations • What program should I use to develop survey? • Where is data stored? • Length of survey? • Design: What order for questions? • Should students be allowed to go back and review responses? • Specific variables: Age

  15. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Face/Content Validity and Functionality • Face • Conducted in several stages • Content • Survey categories based on V-E framework (De Jong & Fawcett, 1981) but developed for nursing • Nurse migration literature searched to obtain categories which reflected why nurses migrate and to determine job factors deemed important to nurses • Consultations with researchers who had experience in survey development • Content validity testing of the questions in each category was performed by two experts and content validity index calculated • Final survey tested by researcher and five individuals for functionality, time to complete, and to ensure accurate data capture

  16. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Designing Survey Questions: Choosing Scales How important is getting a full- time job in nursing after you graduate? Value Scale 1 very unimportant 2 unimportant 3 neither important nor unimportant 4  important 5 very important

  17. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Designing Survey Questions: Choosing Scales How confident are you that you will get a full-time job in nursing ................in Canada? ………………in another country? Expectancy Scale 1= Not confident at all. 2= Slightly confident. I am about 25% certain. 3= Somewhat confident. I am about 50% certain. 4= Very confident. I am about 75% certain 5= Extremely confident. I am about 100% certain.

  18. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series REB: Specific Requirements for Online Survey

  19. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Protecting Confidentiality and Anonymity of Participants • Results stored at university only accessible by password by researcher • Participants created unique identifying code • To allow matching of the survey with any future follow up studies without allowing the investigators to know the respondent’s identity • Required to enter email three times at end of survey • Recruited for follow-up interviews • Recruited for follow-up studies (Did they migrate?) • Enter draw for gift certificates • Three lists generated that were separate from survey responses

  20. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Planning Database: Data Coding

  21. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Developing Survey

  22. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series

  23. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Database: Excel

  24. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Database: SPSS

  25. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Database: SPSS

  26. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Recruitment Three-contact email strategy used (Dillman, Smyth, & Christian, 2009) • Email 1: introduced survey, emphasized importance and information to access survey • Email 2: thank you to those who completed survey, a reminder for those who had not and repeat of access information • Email 3: emphasized limited time left to complete the survey and the importance of responding • Optimal timing sequence for web surveys has not yet been determined • Sent at one week intervals • Draw as incentive • End of survey offered opportunity to participate by giving email address • Additional contacts required to increase response rate • 2 mailings

  27. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Advantages of On-line Survey for Collecting/Storing Data • Low cost; no storing of paper surveys; no mailing costs • Easy to follow response rate • Plan additional contacts if needed • Predictable response rate within 24-48 hr after email contact • Missing data evident • No data entry required • Easily downloaded into SPSS

  28. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Challenges of On-line Survey for Collecting/Storing Data • Additional REB requirements • Students received too many emails/surveys • Could not give reward to each participant for completing survey • Entered draw at end • Required entering email address into separate database that could not be connected with responses • Confidentiality- unable to link with other data (CNO) to follow up on actual migration

  29. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Next Steps • Repeating survey with graduating class 2013 • Complete survey during class • Incentive for each student • Interest from other universities to use survey with graduates

  30. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Summary: Collecting and Storing Your Data • Requires careful planning and design • Clear benefits to using web-based surveys • Primary data bases important in research areas where limited primary research • Benefits of connecting with other researchers to adapt survey to other populations

  31. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series References Aiken, L., Buchan, J., Sochalski, J., Nichols, B., & Powell, M. (2004). Trends in international migration. Health Affairs, 23(3), 69-77. De Jong, G., & Fawcett, J. (1981). Motivations for migration: An assessment and a value-expectancy research model. In G. De Jong, & R. Gardner, Migration decision making: Mutlidisciplinary approaches to microlevel studies in developed and developing countries (pp. 13-58). New York: Pergamon Press. Dillman, D., Smyth, J., & Christian, L. (2009). Internet, mail, and mixed mode surveys: The tailored design method. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Freeman, Michelle A., "Nurse Migration Intentions in a Canadian Border City" (2012). Open Access Dissertations and Theses. Paper 6900. http://digitalcommons.mcmaster.ca/opendissertations/6900 Freeman, M., Baumann, A., Akhtar-Danesh, N., Blythe, J., Fisher, A. (2012). Employment Goals, Expectations, and Migration Intentions of Nursing Graduates in a Canadian Border City: a mixed methods study. Journal of International Nursing Studies. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.07.015 McGillis Hall, L., Pink, G., Jones, C., Leatt, P., Gates, M., & Peterson, J. (2009). Is the grass any greener? Canada to United States of America nurse migration. International Nursing Review, 56, 198-205. Streiner, D., & Norman, G. (2008). Health measurement scales: A practical guide to their development and use. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  32. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Questions?

  33. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Upcoming Webinar Sessions Webinar 4: Development of a New Graduate Nurse Employment Database (Jan 21, 2013) Webinar 5: Applications and Analysis of a Secondary Database (Feb 20, 2013) Webinar 6: Understanding How to Work with HOBIC (March 2013) Webinar 7: Development of a Longitudinal Qualitative Database (March 2013)

  34. Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases Webinar Series Michelle Freeman, RN PhD Assistant Professor University of Windsor (519) 253-3000 ext. 4812 mfreeman@uwindsor.ca Andrea Baumann, PhD Scientific Director Nursing Health Services Research Unit McMaster University Michael DeGroote Centre for Learning MDCL 3500 (905) 525-9140 ext. 22581 baumanna@mcmaster.ca