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Chapter 19 Vibrations and Waves
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  1. Chapter 19 Vibrations and Waves • Vibration of a pendulum • Wave Description • Wave Motion • Transverse Waves • Longitudinal Waves PHY 1071

  2. General definitions of vibrations and waves • Vibration: in a general sense, anything that switches back and forth, to and fro, side to side, in and out, off and on, loud and soft, or up and down is vibrating. A vibration is a wiggle in time. • Wave: a wiggle in both space and time is a wave. A wave extends from one place to another. • Vibrations and waves: the source of all waves is something that is vibrating. Waves are propagations of vibrations throughout space. PHY 1071

  3. Examples of vibrations and waves • Examples of vibrations and waves: • Light and sound: they are both vibrations that propagate throughout space as waves. • Light and sound are two very different kinds of waves: • Sound is the propagation of vibrations through a material medium. If there is no medium to vibrate, then no sound is possible. Sound cannot travel in a vacuum. • Light can travel through a vacuum. Light can pass through many materials, but it needs none. This is evident when light from the sun travels through the vacuum of space to reach us on Earth. • Let’s start our study of vibrations and waves by considering the motion of a simple pendulum. PHY 1071

  4. Vibration of a pendulum • Pendulums swing to and fro with regularity. • A complete to-and-fro oscillation is one vibration. • The time of a to-and-fro vibration (or swing) is called the period of the pendulum. • A long pendulum has a longer period than a short pendulum; that is, it swings to and fro less frequently than a short pendulum. Vibration of a pendulum. The to-and-fro vibratory motion is also called oscillatory motion (or oscillation). PHY 1071

  5. Wave description • Crests and troughs: the high points of a wave are called crests, and the low points are called troughs. • Midpoint of vibration: the straight dashed line represents the “home” position, or midpoint of the vibration. The midpoint position is also the equilibrium position. • Amplitude: the distance from the midpoint to the crest (or trough). The amplitude equals the maximum displacement from equilibrium. • Wavelength: the distance from the top of one crest tot he top of the next one. Or equivalently, the wavelength is the distance between any successive identical parts of the wave. • Frequency: how frequently a vibration occurs is described by its frequency. For example, the frequency of a vibrating pendulum specifies the number of complete to-and-fro vibrations it makes in a given time (usually one second). PHY 1071

  6. More about frequency • The unit of frequency is called the hertz (Hz). For example, if a pendulum makes two vibrations in one second, its frequency is 2 Hz. • The source of all waves is something that vibrates. • The frequency of the vibrating source and the frequency of the wave it produces are the same. • Relationship between frequency and period: Frequency = 1/ Period. • For example, suppose that a pendulum makes two vibrations in one second. Its frequency is 2 Hz. Its period, that is, the time needed to complete one vibration is 1/2 second. Electrons in the transmitting antenna vibrate 940,000 times each second and produce 940-kHz radio waves. PHY 1071

  7. Wave motion • Most information about our surroundings comes to us in some form of waves. It is through wave motion that sounds come to ears, light to our eyes, and electromagnetic signals to our radios and television sets. • Through wave motion, energy can be transferred from a source to a receiver without the transfer of matter between the two points. • In wave motion, what is transported from one place to another is a disturbance (vibration) in a medium, not the medium itself. If one end of a rope is shaken up and down, a rhythmic disturbance travels along the rope. Each particle of the rope moves up and down, while at the same time the disturbance moves along the length of the rope. The medium, rope or whatever, returns to its initial condition after the disturbance has passed. What is propagated is the disturbance, not the medium itself. PHY 1071

  8. Transverse waves • Shake the rope with a regular continuing up-and-down motion, the series of pulses will produce a wave. • Since the motion of the medium (up and down arrows in the rope in this case) is at right angles to the direction the wave travels, this type of wave is called a transverse wave. • Examples of transverse waves: • Waves in the stretched strings of musical instruments. • Waves upon the surfaces of liquids. • Electromagnetic waves, which make up radio waves and light. PHY 1071

  9. Longitudinal waves • Not all waves are transverse. • Sometimes parts that make up a medium move to and fro in the same direction in which the wave travels. • In this case, motion is along the direction of the wave rather than at right angles to it. This produces a longitudinal wave. • Sound waves are longitudinal waves. longitudinal wave Transverse wave PHY 1071

  10. Let’s see some examples • What kind of wave is each of the following: (a) An ocean wave rolling toward Waikiki beach? (b) The sound of one whale calling another whale under water? (c) A pulse sent down a stretched rope by snapping one end of it? • If we double the frequency of a vibrating object, what happens to its period? • A weight suspended from a spring bobs up and down over a distance of 1 meter in two seconds. Its frequency is • 0.5 hertz. • 1 hertz. • 2 hertz. • None of these. • The source of all wave motion is a • Wave pattern. • Vibrating object. • Region of variable high and low pressure. • None of these. PHY 1071

  11. Homework • Chapter 19, P. 377-378, Exercises: #4, 16, 24. • Chapter 19, P. 379, Problems: #1, 2. • The above problems are assigned from the 10th edition of the textbook by Hewitt. PHY 1071