CH2OH O H H H OH H OH HO H OH Carbohydrates: Energy molecules
sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar Carbohydrates • Building block molecules = sugars sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar
sucrose Carbohydrates • Function: • quick energy • energy storage • structure • cell wall in plants • Examples • sugars • starches • cellulose (cell wall) glucoseC6H12O6 starch
CH2OH O H H H OH H OH HO H OH glucose sucrose fructose C6H12O6 maltose Sugars = building blocks -ose • Names for sugars usually end in • glucose • fructose • sucrose • maltose
Building carbohydrates • Synthesis 1 sugar = monosaccharide 2 sugars = disaccharide | glucose | glucose | maltose mono = one saccharide = sugar di = two
Building carbohydrates • Synthesis 1 sugar = monosaccharide 2 sugars = disaccharide | sucrose (table sugar) | glucose | fructose How sweetit is!
BIG carbohydrates • Polysaccharides • large carbohydrates • starch • energy storage in plants • potatoes • glycogen • energy storage in animals • in liver & muscles • cellulose • structure in plants • cell walls • chitin • structure in arthropods & fungi • exoskeleton poly = many
Building BIG carbohydrates polysaccharide glucose + glucose + glucose… = starch (plant) energystorage glycogen (animal)
enzyme enzyme Digesting starch vs. cellulose starcheasy todigest cellulosehard todigest
Cellulose • Cell walls in plants • herbivores can digest cellulose well • most carnivores cannot digest cellulose • that’s why they eat meatto get their energy & nutrients • cellulose = roughage • stays undigested • keeps material moving in your intestines
Different Diets of Herbivores Cow can digest cellulose well; no need to eat other sugars Gorilla can’t digest cellulose well; must add another sugar source, like fruit to diet
Helpful bacteria • How can cows digest cellulose so well? • BACTERIA live in their stomachs & help digest cellulose-rich (grass) meals Eeeew…Chewingcud?
EAT X Let’s build some Carbohydrates!
Activities • building starch by bonding together paper glucose molecules • eat carrots, celery, cookies