Status of Biogas in India, Government schemes and Biogas Enrichment & Bottling for Automobile By Dr. Virendra K. Vijay Centre for Rural Development & Technology Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India E-mail: email@example.com
Biogas is an important renewable energy resource for rural areas in India. It is produced by anaerobic digestion of biological wastes. It is an environment friendly, clean, cheap and versatile fuel. Biogas generally comprise of 55-65 % methane, 35-45 % carbon dioxide, 0.5-1.0 % hydrogen sulfide and traces of water vapour. Average calorific value of biogas is 20 MJ/m3 (4713 kcal/ m3). Introduction
Biogas like Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) cannot be liquefied under normal temperature and pressure. Critical temperature required for liquefaction of methane is -82.1oC at 4.71MPa pressure, therefore use of biogas is limited nearby the biogas plant. An estimate indicates that India has a potential of generating 6.38 X 1010 m3 of biogas from 980 million tones of cattle dung produced annually. The heat value of this gas amounts to 1.3 X 1012 MJ. In addition, 350 million tones of manure would also produce along with biogas.
Biogas Technology Status • India has been pioneering country in developing simple and easy to operate biogas plants. • The government of India has been running National Biogas and Manure Management Program (NBMMP) for the welfare of the weaker section of the society. • 100% Biogas engines are in operation in the country. • 95% methane to make it suitable to be used as a transport fuel and for blending with natural gas where the gas grid is available. • High density polyethylene (HDPE) based complete and portable family size biogas plants suitable for rural and semi urban area.
Other urban waste projects include a 1 MW project based on cattle dung at Haebowal, Ludhiana; a 0.50 MW project for generation of power from biogas at sewage treatment plant at Surat, Gujarat; and a 150 kW pant for vegetable market and slaughter house waste and Vijaywada. Another 300 kW project based on vegetable market waste in under commissioning at Chennai. Besides, about 25 waste-to-energy projects with an aggregate capacity of about 30 MW from a variety of industrial wastes also been setup in the country.
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Bio-energy Technology Development Group • Biogas Programmes: • National Biogas and Manure Management Programme (NBMMP). • Biogas Based Distributed/Grid Power Generation Programme. • Demonstration of Integrated Technology Package on Biogas-Fertilizer Plants (BGFP) for Generation, Purification/ Enrichment, Bottling and Piped Distribution of Biogas. • Establishment of Business Model for Demonstration of an Integrated Technology Package for creation of smokeless villages using biogas/ bio-energy systems and meeting ‘Life-line Energy’ envisaged in ‘Integrated Energy Policy’
Methane (Green house gas) released from three Landfills of Delhi during 2008: 74,000 tonnes(Indian Express 29.01.2010) Effect of methane is higher than from CO2 by: 21 times Percentage of methane in harmful green house gas: 18%(approx.) Annual CO2 Emission Reduction from 1.5 lakh biogas plants: 70.5375 tonne Expected Annual CER from 1.50 lakh biogas plants: Rs.75 lakh Biogas- Fertilizer Plants: Most Potent tool to Handle Methane- a Green house gas
Provisions in Integrated Policy Report of Planning Commission • Section 8.3 of Chapter on “Household Energy Security: Electricity and Clean Fuels for All” recommends to: • “Provide lifeline entitlement of 30 units of electricity and 6 kg of LPG or equivalent amount of Kerosene for one or both lifeline energy needs through a system of smart/ debit cards with varying levels of direct cash support to targeted house holds……..” • Provision of 6 kg of LPG may require about 138 million kg of LPG per month for 23 million BPL families. • Biogas plant are one of the most suitable option for rural areas for supplying lifeline energy for cooking and lighting. • 1.5 to 2m3 capacity biogas plant per family can provide the recommended lifeline energy to BPL families.
Biogas Programmes • New Initiative for Technology Demonstration: • Demonstration of Integrated Technology Package on Biogas-Fertilizer Plants (BGFP) for Generation, Purification/ Enrichment, Bottling and Piped Distribution of Biogas. • Establishment of Business Model for Demonstration of an Integrated Technology Package for creation of smokeless villages using biogas/ bio-energy systems and meeting ‘Life-line Energy’ envisaged in ‘Integrated Energy Policy’
NPBD/ NBMMP Launched in 1981. Estimated potential of biogas plants: 120 lakh Nos. Cumulative Biogas plants installed: 41.7 lakh(34%) Envisaged Target for 11th Plan: 6.47 lakh plant (14 lakh m3) Installation in first two and half years of the 11th Plan: 2.44 lakh plant (4.9 lakh m3) National Biogas and Manure Management Programme (NBMMP)
Launched in January, 2006. Projects completed: 20 Nos.(567.50 kW) Projects under Installation: 68 Nos. (549 kW) Total no. of projects sanctioned: 88 Nos. Total/ Aggregated capacity: About 1.16 MW Biogas based Distributed/ Grid Power Generation Programme (BDPGP).
Biogas based Distributed/ Grid Power Generation Programme: Central Financial Assistance
Biogas Plant Capacity: 25 - 3000 cum/ day Power Generation Capacity: 3 -250 KW Estimated Power Generation from 25 cum Plant: 30KWhr per day (3KW) Estimated Power Generation from 100 cum Plant: 120 KWhr per day (12 KW) Estimated No. of hours for meeting Power Requirement from 25 cum Plant: 10 hrs. Biogas based Distributed/ Grid Power Generation Programme
Biogas-fertilizer Plant Potential in India 1. Cattle Dung based biogas and bio-fertilizer Potential: Cattle population: Over 289 million Dung collected: 1445 million ton/day (@ 5kg per cattle per day) Estimated Biogas Generation: 57.8 million m3/day Estimated LPG equivalent: 25 million kg/ day Bio-fertilizer: 1083.75 million ton/ day
Biogas-fertilizer Plant Potential in India 2. Surplus crop residue/ biomass based potential: Surplus crop residue/ biomass: 38.52 million ton/yr Estimated biogas generation: 3.852 million m3/yr. Estimated LPG equivalent: 1.67 million kg/ yr. Bio-fertilizer: 3. De-oiled cake based biogas potential: (4,00,000 ha of Jatropha plantation) Estimated biogas generation: 0.263 million m3/yr. Estimated LPG equivalent: 0.114 million kg/ yr. Contd.
Biogas-fertilizer Plant Potential in India 4.Poultry Litter based potential: Total Poultry population (1997): 347 million Estimated bird litter production (@200g/ bird/ day): 25 million tons/ yr. Estimated Biogas production: 2983 million m3/yr. (@116 ltr/ kg): Estimated LPG equivalent: 1277.39 million kg/ yr. 5. Kitchen waste based potential: considerable.
To harness near total potential of loose and leafy biomass waste, cattle dung and waste from kitchens and gardens in rural areas for installation of medium and large size biogas-fertilizer plants. Purification/ enrichment of bottling of biogas to replace PNG/ CNG/ LPG. To produce, upgrade and package high quality bio-fertilizer through vermi-composting and other technologies from digested slurry of BGFP To establish self-sustainable entrepreneurial model for installation of such plants in villages, gaushalas, dairies, eating joints, restaurants, hostels and institutions. Biogas-Fertilizer Plant Demonstration Projects: Objectives
BGFP Technology Demonstration Projects Proposed No. of Technology demonstration projects: 100 Nos. Capacity of BGFP: Multiples of 200, 500 and 1000 m3. Minimum economically sustainable plant size/ capacity: About 400 m3. Estimated cost of an Integrated 200-1000 m3 BGFP Project (cost will vary on plant size taken up): Rs. 40-160 lakh. Support technology demonstration. Better to follow commercio-cooperative approach for ensuring biomass feed material supply from beneficiaries.
Institutional arrangements for implementation of BGFP Technology Demonstration Projects It is proposed to implement the proposed BGFP demonstration projects through private and public sector companies, and leasing companies, rural entrepreneurs, cooperatives through IREDA, Banks and other financial institutions. To make ‘Biogas-fertilizer plant based Energy Infrastructure Initiative’ more economical, it would be useful for corporate bodies and entrepreneurs to bunch BGFPs in group of villages/ areas to avail of CDM benefits.
Financial Support for BGFP Projects Proposed financial support: Organization Percentage of Project Cost MNRE support: 50% IREDA/ Bank Loan: 30% Promoter/ user agency contribution: 20%
HDPE biogas plants by two private sector manufacturers installed under a demonstration project
Biogas Plant 20 m3/day Capacity KVIC Biogas Plant installed at IIT Delhi
Need for the Biogas Enrichment and Bottling • Potential of biogas is not fully utilized and commercialized so far. • For commercialization, its area of application may widen; from cooking fuel to vehicle fuel. • For use as a vehicle fuel, it should be bottled like CNG. • Before bottling, it should enriched in methane content from 55 % to 95 %; similar to CNG.
Among various methods of enrichment i.e. Chemical absorption, PSA, membrane separation; Water scrubbing is found to be a suitable method for biogas enrichment in rural areas. • It is simple, continuous and cheap process compared to other processes and also absorb H2S. • Enriched biogas can further compress up to 20 MPa pressure for optimum gas storage in cylinders.
Refiningand Compression of Biogas • Purification is carried out to enrich biogas by scrubbing off the unwanted components i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). • It is essential to have more energy per unit volume of compressed biogas and to get rid of the corrosive effect of H2S. • Various purification processes include absorption into water, absorption by chemical, pressure swing adsorption and membrane separation. • One of the easiest, simplest and cheapest method is the use of pressurized water as an absorbent liquid.
For economic viability of biogas bottling, its availability should be in large quantity. • Plants linked with Dairy / Goshala (350 cattle or more), sewage treatment plants are suitable for this work. • Biogas bottling may start new business venture in villages. Thus, open up new era of employment and income generation for village people. • Biogas manure enhances the organic content of soil, thereby increases water holding capacity of soil.
Design of Water Scrubbing System • Water scrubbing method is found most suitable for biogas enrichment in rural areas. • Water is good solvent for CO2. • The solubility of CO2 in water is governed by variation in pressures and temperatures.
System Operation • Raw biogas is compressed up to 1.0 MPa pressure to enhance solubility of CO2 in water. • Pressurized biogas is sent into bottom section of the scrubber. • Packing material is used to enhance the contact time (interfacial area) between gas and water. • Pressurized water is sprayed from top to absorb the CO2 from pressurized biogas.
Process flow chart of biogas enrichment and compression system Biogas Digester Moisture Removal Biogas (CH4 CO2) Single Stage Compressor Gas Storage Pressure Vessel Water Tank Water Pump Flow Meter Biogas Scrubber Dissolved CO2 in Water Enriched Biogas Gas Storage Pressure Vessel Moisture Filters Pressure Reducers Three Stage Gas Compressor High Pressure Cylinders for Storage of Enriched Gas
Further R&D Work Required for Biogas Development Biogas production using easily available local waste material preferably agricultural wastes. Development of new and low cost improved designs of biogas plants for large sizes. Development of low cost technology for separation of methane, CO2 and sulfur compounds from biogas for easy bottling of pure methane and to reduce the damages caused by S-compounds on machines using the biogas.
The effect of bio-wash (liquid from digested slurry) on vegetables and crops. Design of kitchen waste biogas plant for restaurants Testing of oil seed cake based biogas plant slurry for nutrient value and its effect on crop production
Conclusions India has second largest biogas programme in the world at rural and as well as urban levels. Many technologies/models have been successfully developed in India for biogas programme. There is need to develop a sustainable renewable energy programme on biogas for replacing petroleum products by utilization of biogas in the country. This will help in green energy technology and reducing green house gases emissions.
Biogas is a potential renewable energy source for rural India and other developing countries. Biogas generation and subsequent bottling will cater the energy needs of villages, supply enriched manure and maintain village sanitation. The bottling system will work as a decentralize source of power with uninterrupted supply using local resources, generate ample opportunities for employment and income of the rural people.