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  1. Accommodating Students’ Needsin E-Learning and B-Learning: Different Routes to the Same Success? Students’ Needs Sherri Y.C. Wei ETAL April 08 2009

  2. The Integration of Technology:The Third Distinct “A mixture of two languages will produce a third distinct from both, and they will always be mixed.” In Samuel Johnson’s (1755) the preface of A Dictionary of the English Language (paragraph 89).

  3. Outline • 1. The Digital Native Debate • (Prensky, 2001) • 2. Theory of Transactional • Distance (Moore, 1972) • 3. Community of inquiries • (Garrison, Anderson, Archer, 2000) • Opportunities to exercise • choice-making • 2. Willingness to assume • responsibility • 3. Reflection on • self-management • 4. Sense of ownership • Spring 2008 • Class A (e-learning, semester) • Class B (b-learning, semester) • Class C (b-learning, one-month) I-Statement Analysis Students’ voices in diary and interview analysis

  4. Theoretical Frameworks • 1. The Digital Native Debate • (Prensky, 2001) • 2. Theory of Transactional Distance (Moore, 1972) • 3. Community of inquiries • (Garrison, Anderson, Archer, 2000)

  5. Prensky (2001) A new generation Digital Natives (1980-1994) Digital Immigrants Two key claims A distinct generation of Digital Native does exist. Fundamental changes are necessary to meet their needs. The Digital Native Debate

  6. Characteristics of the Net Generation • Active experiential learners • Proficient in multitasking • Dependent on ICTs for accessing information and interacting with others • Fundamental changes are necessary to accommodatethe skills and interestsof this Net Generation (Benett, Maton & Kervin, 2008, p. 776)

  7. The Call for Changes I • “ There is growing appreciation that the old approach is ill-suited to the intellectual, social, motivation and emotional needs of the new generation” (Tapscott, 1998, p. 131). • “Our students have changed radically. Today’s students are no longer the people our education system was designed to teach” [emphasis in original] (Prensky, 2001, p. 1)

  8. The Call for Changes II • Liu’s Study ‘The Trend and Challenge for Teaching EFL at Taiwan Universities’ (2005) • The need to provide balanced, sound instruction to include Web-based instruction (WBI) in the Internet age. • EFL instructors need to think about how to take advantage of the Internet to help learners’ development of English in conjunction with CLT in a hybrid context.

  9. Suggestions from Liu • Benefits of WBI: • Large numbers of resources in English are available online. • More opportunities for authentic English practice. • Alternative communication opportunities (Synchronous and asynchronous communica­tion tools).

  10. The Other Side of the Debate • The survey study of 4375 students across 13 institutions in United States by Kvavik, Caruso & Morgan (2004) • 99.5 % Email • 99.5 % Surfing the Internet for pleasure • 93.4 % Word processing • 21% Creatingtheir own content and multimedia for the Web

  11. Similar Patterns in Two Australian Studies • Kenndy et al (2006) • 21% Blog • 24% Social net-working technologies • 21.5% Downloading podcasts (Oliver & Goerke, 2007) • Other variables • Socio-economic status • Cultural/ethnic background • Gender • Discipline specialization

  12. Moore’s Theory of Transactional Distance (1972) • “Distance education is not simply a geographic separation of learners and teachers, but, more importantly, is a pedagogical concept.” (In Keegan “Theoretical Principles of Distance Education”, 1997: 22)

  13. Airbag for Online Learning?

  14. Myths of technological determinism • Technology determines its own uses an effects. • The changes brought by technology are inevitable. • Inventions as revolutions. (Kenning, 2007, p. 6 -13)

  15. Four major obstacles • The drivers for change should be identified and capitalized on. • New possibilities in delivery are available at a cost, so sustainable approaches to these learning have to be ensured. • New methodologies add a layer of complexity [to course structure]. • New ways of interacting and the free exchange of information require careful consideration of ethical issues. (Littlejohn & Pegler, 2007, P. 3)

  16. Community of Inquiry Social Presence Supporting Discourse Cognitive Presence Educational Experience Selecting Content Setting Climate Teaching Presence (Structure/Process) • (Garrison, Anderson, Archer, 2000)

  17. Online Listening Resources

  18. A C B Three Listening Courses B-Learning (One-Month) Freshmen Listening Lab Freshmen English Majors E-Learning Intermediate Listening Junior/Senior Non-English Majors B-Learning Computer Assisted Listening Comprehension Junior/Senior English Majors

  19. A B C

  20. Reflective Account One Reflective Account Two Diaries entries Class A & B 5-7 Class C 4 Focus Group Interview F2F/Online Data Collection: Diaries& Interviews

  21. I-Statement Analysis I • “I-statement analysis examines how people speak in the first person, referring, for example, to their actions, successes, abilities, or constraints, and thus use language to fashion themselves as a person of a particular type” (Gee, 1999, 2000 in Fang& Warschauer, 2004, p. 308) .

  22. I-Statement Analysis II • Gee (1999, 2000) • how teenagers fashion themselves through the choice of language • one of the discourse analytic tools he applied in order to give a “snapshot” of teenagers’ actual use of language so as to further explore the underlying identity formation (Gee, 2001, p. 177). • Fang & Warschauer (2004) • to analyse interviews in showing higher level of autonomy [More Action Statements] • Brown, Smith and Ushioda (2007) & Ushioda (2008) • to analyse written reflective accounts

  23. Class A [Online FG] It is the higher level of autonomy that makes this course interesting …I think the Internet plays a major role, because I have this certain sense of achievement that I depend on myself in learning or do other things through the internet. It makes me feel like a college student. Class B [F2F FG] Who’s responsible for the success of the forum? It’s a matter of attitude. Even if it’s part of the requirement, those who don’t care will not participate. They might appear online but just hanging there. Extracts from Focus Group Interviews

  24. Learner Autonomy • Opportunities to exercise choice-making • Willingness to assume responsibility • Capability to take control • Determine the objectives/goal-setting • Define the content • Select methods and strategies to use • Reflection on self-management • Evaluate the progress • Monitor the procedure of acquisition • Sense of ownership

  25. Community of Inquiry Social Presence Supporting Discourse Cognitive Presence Educational Experience Selecting Content Setting Climate Teaching Presence (Structure/Process) • (Garrison, Anderson, Archer, 2000)

  26. Thank you for your listening! Sherri Y.C. Wei Y-C.Wei@warwick.ac.uk ETAL April 08 2009