Sports Nutrition Source: Ann Litt, MS, RD
Carbohydrates • Carbohydrates are needed before, during and after exercise. • Supply immediate energy • Essential for maintaining fuel reserves • Help muscles recover from exercise • Cut them out of your diet, you can cut yourself out of competition!!!
Simple Carbohydrates • Found in Fruits and Vegetables • Also found in candy, soda and cookies –These foods are called “empty calories” because they provide calories without other nutrients.
Complex Carbohydrates • Often called starch- found in foods such as whole wheat bread, potatoes, pasta and rice. • In addition to calories, they provide vitamins, minerals, fiber, protein and fat.
Glycogen • Regardless of the type of carbohydrate eaten, all are converted to glucose in the body and used as fuel. • The body can store a limited amount of carbohydrates, called glycogen (in liver and muscle). • This is a fuel reserve. • When you eat more than your body can store or use, all carbs are converted to fat and stored in the body.
Glycogen stores • 150 lbs male has about 1800 calories of carbohydrates stored in • Muscle 1400 calories (78%) • Liver 320 (18%) • Blood 80 (4%)
Glycemic Index • GI tells us something about the rate of digestion and absorption of its carbohydrates • High GI foods enter the bloodstream rapidly and are readily available as glucose, making them good choices during and after exercise. • Low GI foods enter the blood more slowly, so they are better choices for pre-exercise, when you are looking for foods to sustain energy.
Protein • Involved in building muscle and repairing muscle tissue after injury or exercise • Protein regulates body functions and keeps the body healthy and strong by fighting infections. • Involved in every chemical reaction in the body. • Protein is an expensive energy source • Does eating extra protein build bigger muscles?
Fats: Not a Diet Demon • Fats or Lipids are broken down in the body to fatty acids. • Necessary to absorb fat-soluble vitamins (Vitamin A, D, E, K) • Protects internal organs • Keeps body warm by providing insulation
Determining your Protein Requirements • Growing teen athletes need about 0.8 -0.9 grams of protein per pound of body weight. • Ex. 16yr old Josh weighs 160 pounds • 160 x 0.8 = 128 160 x 0.9 = 144 • Josh needs 128-144 grams of protein a day • Calculate your protein requirements!!
Balanced diet • The foods you eat for training is as important, if not more important, than the diet for the actual event. • Some diets such as high-protein, low carbohydrate diets are currently in vogue but an athlete performing without carbohydrates is like a car running without gas.
Dietary Supplements • Is intended to supplement the diet • Contains one or more dietary ingredient (including vitamins, minerals, herbs or botanicals, amino acids and other substances) • Is intended to be taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet or liquid • Is labeled on the front panel as being a dietary supplement
5hr energy • What is the main message? • View small print • Close-up camera shots • Special sound effects • Special lighting • Music • Excitement • The advertisement was for?
Buyers Beware • Dietary Supplements ($36B)such as Amino Acid powders,Muscle Milk, Creatine, DHEA (prohormones), Meal Replacements,5Hour Energy, Caffeine, Vitamins and Minerals etc. • Supplements are virturally unregulated. • FDA doesn’t consider them food or drug so it doesn’t regulate them. • Once dietary supplement is marketed, FDA has to prove that the product is not safe in order to remove it from the market!!
Dehydration source:B. Mackenzie • Sweating is the way in which your body maintains its core temperature. • When you sweat you are losing body fluid and electrolytes (minerals such as chloride, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium) % body weight lost as sweatEffect 2% impaired performance 4% muscular work declines 5% heat exhaustion 7% hallucinations 10% circulatory collapse
Fluid absorption • Two main factors affect the speed at which fluid from a drink gets into the body: • The speed at which it is emptied from the stomach • The rate at which it is absorbed through the walls of the small intestine • The higher the carbohydrate levels in a drink, the slower the rate of stomach emptying.
Sports Drinks • 3 types of sports drinks all of which contain various levels of fluid, electrolytes and carbohydrates. • Isotonic -Fluid, electrolytes and 6 -8% carb • Hypotonic – Fluids, electrolytes and low level of carb (marathoners) • Hypertonic – high level of carbs (gymnasts and jockeys)
Best Recovery Drink source: E. Magee RD • Chocolate milk is an effective recovery beverage after muscle-intensive workouts. • Contains ideal carb to protein ratio (3 to 1) which enhances glycogen replenishment into the muscles post workout. Regular milk has 2:1 ratio • Contains whey protein which is digested and absorbed quickly, getting essential amino acids circulating in the blood stream soon after consumption. • Contains casein which reduces the amount of muscle breakdown.
Muscle Cramps • Could be due to Dehydration • Mineral Deficiencies – Magnesium, Potassium and Calcium • Good sources of Magnesium are soy-based foods, whole-grain bread, almonds, cashews and Brazil nuts • Good sources of Potassium are orange juice, potatoes and bananas • Good sources of Calcium are milk and dairy based foods, dark green leafy vegetables, sardines, almonds
Water source:S. Morres RD Important for five reasons: 1. Helps digest food
Importance of water 2. Helps remove waste
Importance of water 3. Lubricates muscles and joints
Importance of water 4. Regulates body temperature
Importance of water 5.Helps our cell communicate
Caffeine • How much are you drinking ? • When are you consuming it?