What Fuels our body. Sports Nutrition. Sports nutrition Developed in the 1980s Important sub-discipline of exercise science Very important for high-performance athletes Interest in it keeps greatly increasing Many “health food” choices today In this chapter….
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What Fuels our body Sports Nutrition
Sports nutrition • Developed in the 1980s • Important sub-discipline of exercise science • Very important for high-performance athletes • Interest in it keeps greatly increasing • Many “health food” choices today • In this chapter…. • We’re going to look at the biochemical and psychological functions of food and how they affect athletic performance. Introduction
Nutrition is a science consisting of a number of subspecialties, including clinical nutrition, nutritional biochemistry, community nutrition, nutrition in the food service arena, nutritional management, and nutrition counseling. Nutrition
How nutrition affects exercise performance at all levels, beginners through professionals • How ergogenic aids effect nutrition and physical performance • Ergogenic aids- substances that enhance exercise performance. • How nutrition affects physical performance • Example- Individuals who have physically demanding occupations What is sports nutrition?
Nutrition- “the science that interprets the relationship of food to the functioning of the living organism” • American Dietetic Association (ADA) believes many factors affect nutrition… • Psychological • Athletes’ psychological status affects nutritional status • Sociological • Economical What is sports nutrition cont…
As interest increases in physical activity, so does the abuse of nutritional supplements. • Nutritional quackery- • Propagation of debatable scientific information as important evidence for the effectiveness of a particular product • Mostly affects athletes Fads and misconception…
Bachelor’s degree in nutrition and/or nutrition and dietetics • Accredited by ADA Prerequisites- • Inorganic and organic chemistry • Biology • Biochemistry • Senior year… • Apply to specific dietetic internships • 10-12 months long • Must maintain credentials every 5 years Becoming a sports nutritionist
Researchers that study the effect of nutritional involvement on exercise performance Registered dietitians who advocate sound nutritional practices to athletes, resulting in optimal performance Work with anyone from high school students to Olympic athletes May also work with people who exercise or those with physically challenging jobs Who are sports nutritionists?
Some may require more carbs or protein, but it is imperative to maintain a healthy diet. • Consuming a wide variety of nutrients, as well, will improve function and performance. • Many athletes will do whatever it takes to succeed. Many times this leads to unhealthy habits. • In truth, a proper diet will propel an athlete and keep them healthy, helping them to reach their full potential. An athlete’s diet…
People get tired of hearing this, but it is actually a vital part of a healthy diet. • It helps decrease overeating. • It’s even better than the high-tech supplements that are now available. • All it requires… • A protein, fat, and carb to get the day kicked off right! • Example- Peanut butter and jelly w/ milk • It’s that easy!!! EAT BREAKFAST!!!
Carbohydrates • Fats • Protein • All are required for energy in the body. Macronutrients
Maintain glycogen stores • Glycogen • Used for energy • Storage form of CHO for in the liver and muscles • Required to ensure adequate blood glucose • Blood glucose=blood sugar • Glucose-simple sugar • Breakdown product of CHO • Central nervous system’s main fuel source • Essential for proper brain function Carbohydrates (CHO)
Insufficient CHO intake can be detrimental to your health, and in severe cases has even lead to death! (ex. Atkins diet) • At rest- CHO supplies approximately 40% of energy our bodies need • Medium to high intensity activities require CHO as a fuel source. • High intensity- more than 70% CHO • Gram of CHO=4kCal of energy • Example…400g CHO provides 1600 kilocalories Dietary Carbohydrate
Mix it up • Have protein, carbs, and fat • For an endurance event- • Follow up with about 200 kCals of CHO/hour • 15 min- 2 hours after, replenish with high-carb foods Pregame meal…
Athlete’s… • Consume mainly complex CHO • Grains, pasta, whole grain bread, rice, etc… • 60-65% of total caloric intake • 2000 kCal daily diet=1200-1300 kCal • 300-325 grams of CHO/day • Increasing intake • Add snacks • Carbs should cover about half of plate CHO Recommendations
Athletes will feel… • Lethargic • Light-headed • Because the brain counts on glucose for energy Not enough CHO…
Athletes will feel… • Fatigued • Sluggish • They’ll also miss out on other crucial nutrients which are necessary for peak performance Too much CHO…
AKA-glycogen supercompensation • Followed by athletes who compete in endurance events lasting 60-90 minutes • Main goal is to modify diet by • Eating more complex carbs to obtain additional stored glycogen • Can even be 4X the normal level • Allows athlete to maintain race pace longer without fatigue setting in because of extra glycogen Carbohydrate Loading
Low liver glycogen • Caused by • Glycogen levels depleting in muscles • Body starts relying on glucose from blood and liver stores • Occurs when • Blood glucose levels are very low, causing CNS to malfunction • Body then must use outside glucose source Hypoglycemia
If an athlete doesn’t eat glucose during endurance events, the body will resort to using protein. -Breaking down muscle for energy is never good! • Symptoms of hypoglycemia… -acute fatigue -light-headedness -nausea -marked irritability Hypoglycemia cont…
Fats=9 kCal/g • A must for carrying out several bodily functions successfully • Hormone production • Nervous system function • Fat should be 20-30% of total calories • 400-600 kCal should be consumed, based on a 2000 kCal/day diet (45-67 g/day) Fats
Composition • Mainly chains of carbon atoms connected by chemical bonds • Hydrogen atoms are linked to each carbon atom • Different types • Saturated • Monounsaturated • Polyunsaturated Fats…
All the spaces on the carbon atoms are filled with hydrogen atoms. Solid at room temperature Tend to increase blood cholesterol Should only be about 7% of total daily caloric intake Saturated Fat
Some studies show that these may decrease total cholesterol and increase HDL in blood • high-density lipoprotein • The good cholesterol • Should be about 13% of total daily caloric intake Monounsaturated Fats
Can lower total cholesterol, but can also lowers HDL Should be about 10% of total daily caloric intake Polyunsaturated Fats
Adding hydrogen to fats Makes a polyunsaturated fat more like a saturated fat Changing the makeup of the fats may make them unhealthier, but it’s still under research. Hydrogenation
required for many physiological function and are made of amino acids • 20 essential and nonessential amino acids • Average people-Require about 0.8 g/kg of mass per day • Athletes-Requirements are under debate • Most people already take in too much protein Protein
Too much can lead to increased urinary calcium excretion. This can cause loss of bone density. • =EARLY OSTEOPOROSIS!!! • Dietary Reference Intake states that • athletes might consume enough in their daily diet • Endurance athletes require • 1.0-1.4 g/kg/day • Strength athletes require • 1.1-1.7 g/kg/day • VIDEO Protein cont….
Have become very popular since the 1990s • Many strength athletes believe they’re necessary • Actually, athletes can get more protein from the foods they eat • These are less expensive • And also contain other important nutrients Protein Supplementation
Like minerals, vitamins do not provide energy but are involved in energy producing reactions. There are different types of vitamins including water-soluble and fat soluble. Water soluble include B12, B6, foliate, thiamin riboflavin, niacin, Vitamin C,Choline, biotin Fat soluble include A, D, E, and K Vitamins
A mineral is used for metabolic reactions in the body which intern increase energy in the body. Major minerals include calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, and magnesium Minerals also act directly in many of the reactions involved in energy metabolism such as: glucose, lipid, and other protein metabolism Minerals
Your body is estimated to be 60-70 percent water It is important to be hydrated weather you are an athlete or not. Water should be consumed all day and for athletes: before, during, and after they practice or workout. A good replenishment of fluids for an athlete would be drinks such as: Gatorade, PowerAde, and Propel Another drink that scientists have juggled around is pickle juice. Which is suppose to to protect against muscle cramps. Hydration
Hypoatreamia: Is below normal levels of sodium in the blood and electrolytes need to be replaced Electrolytes: a chemical substance which, when dissolved in water or melted, dissociates into electrically charged particles Especially for long distances, water and salt are lost in sweat and electrolytes need to be replaced. Hyponatremia and Electrolytes
Is not healthy for anyone, nor does it necessarily mean to not eat at all. Starvation can also mean that the body is being starved of necessary nutrients. In addiction, when a person undergoes starvation, the first thing to go is not fat but protein (muscle). A proper diet is essential for good health in fact in 1997 three wrestlers at three different universities died as a result of inappropriate weight loss practices Starvation
A supplement that was popular in the 1990’s and is mostly used in high intensity and short duration exercises. Good for short bursts of energy Example: sprinting and weightlifting It is shown that Creatine improves athletic performance and may increase muscle mass. One of the main factors of the supplement is that often associated with water retention High doses could lead to effects on the heart, liver, and possibly the kidneys. A given amount of Creatine of 5 grams is about equal to 2.5 pounds of raw meat and that’s only one dose. Creatine Monohydrate
Is in a number of products including coffee, colas, some medications, and chocolate. Studies have shown that ingestion of about 2 cups of coffee has been shown to improve endurance performance. Athletes who use caffeine should consume it 1 hour prior to working out if they want the full effect. Caffeine has been classified as a restricted drug by the International Olympic Committee(IOC) That being said, the IOC does not keep athletes from using caffeine they just have a tolerant limit of about six to eight cups of coffee in a day that is tested through the urine Caffeine
Is a protein that is required to bring fatty acids into the mitochondria of the cell. For most individuals, more than 50% of the daily need of Carnitine is provided by the diet (meat, fish, poultry, and some dairy). Almost all rest comes from amino acids Carnitine
Is a natural organic compound that is water soluble and is found as a part of phospholipids in animal and plant foods. In 1998 it was classified as an essential nutrient It is best to obtain choline from foods, not supplements. More long-term studies are needed to see if negative health affects will occur. Choline
Athletes now a days use these drugs to enhance their performance in any type of setting from football to baseball. Drugs such as: Steroids and HGH are known to all athletes and has become a major issue in our professional sports today http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tk75Dehq2kY Ergogenic Aids/ Performance enhancers
Ergogenic aids may be classified as nutritional, Pharmacologic, Physiolgical, and Psycological drugs that stimulate the nervous system More is thought to be better but with ergogenic aids more can be harmful The FDA does not regulate the supplements that are on the market Supplements can become very expensive Ergogenic Aids
Glutamine is an amino acid that has a number of functions in the body Glutamine has reserves stored in the muscles that are depleted during exercise OTS) or overtraining syndrome is a low amount of glutamine in the muscles for a long period of time A lack of it can lead to an increase in chances of getting a disease or infection Glutamine
Glycerol is a nutritional ergogenic Used by athletes to hyper hydrate because it attracts water and is quickly absorbed by the body Some researches have stated that glycerol is better than water alone while others state that they believe it may have no affect at all Glycerol
(MTC) medium-chain triglyceride oil is a quick absorbing fat People who cannot properly absorb fats in their diets benefit from it They absorb like glucose unlike the long chain triglycerides that take a different path Researchers found that when used in large amounts it improves athletic performance Many side affects also come along with the (MTC) such as Gastrointestinal upset which can actually set back athletic performance Medium Chain Triglycerides
Coenzyme-Q (ubiquinone) is required for ATP production in the mitochondria. Not a lot of research has been done on it Some research found that it improved exercise performance by increasing fat utilization of energy during endurance exercise Coenzyme-Q
Energy drinks are very common amongst college students. All energy drinks contain ginseng which is a stimulant Ginseng is an herb that is supposed to improve energy Researchers believe it is more of a brain stimulant that does not actually give the body energy Ginseng
Chromium is an essential mineral that is needed to enhance the affects of hormone insulin in the body There is no RDA for chromium but the estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake (ESADDI) of chromium, which is 50 to 200mg per day for individuals 11 and older Chromium's main effect is to enhance the action insulin in the body. Insulin helps with many things in the body Chromium is essential but chromium picolinate became popular because it was thought to enhance chromium's absorption into the body Chromium is not needed by athletes and may require other ergogenic aids along with it Chromium Picolinate
A mineral not yet considered essential for humans but is very common among body builders and weightlifters It was thought to increase lean body mass and bone mineral density Researchers have not confirmed that boron increases either of the two Boron