Unit 1 U.S. History
The Dawn of Man • Scientist say humans first emerged 15,000 -30,000 years ago • Use radiocarbon dating • 15,000 years ago humans crossed a landmass called Beringia • These people were Nomads- people traveling place 2 place • 9000-10000 years ago an agricultural revolution accrued. • People grew maize, pumpkins, peppers beans • People started to settle in civilizations.
200 A.D. Mayan civilization developed in the Yucatan Peninsula • Built temples and developed a calendar( based on stars • Aztecs build a city called Tenochtitlán . It is in present day Mexico city. • Demanded sacrifices from conquered tribes
Native American Cultures • Culture depended on the region natives lived • South West Natives (Zuni, Pueblo)- raised squash, maize and beans • Women cared for family and farmed • Men farmed also but was manly a warrior • Natives of the Sioux around 1500’s began to use horses for war and hunting.
Eastern Woodlands Indians (east coast) • Combined hunting and fishing with farming • Used slash and burn agriculture- clear forest and burn it into the soil • Iroquois have large kinship groups • Iroquois fought and eventually formed the Iroquois League to keep the peace
West africa • The Sahara- makes up most of the interior of Africa. • The edges of the desert has rolling grasslands called savannah • Islam came about in Africa around the 900’s • Followers of Islam are known as Muslims.
Slavery in Africa • People who were captured in war became slaves • Slaves would be sold back to their people • Or become part of the society where they were slaves • European set up sugar cane plantations on Mediterranean Island • Started slave trading • Spain and Portugal set up plantation on west Africa so work fields • Traders also sent slaves to the Americas
Chapter 1 section 4 • 1095 Pope Urban II called for the crusades. These military expeditions to regain holy land. • Roman empire controlled much of europe for hundred of years. • 500 A.D. the empire had weakened and. This is called the Middle ages. • Feudalism developed as a political system in Europe because the Roman Empire delcined • Feudal system- a political system in which the king gave estates to nobles in exchange for their military support
Manorialism- economic ties between nobles and peasants. • Most peasants were serfs • Serfs worked on the land, they could not leave the manor without permission. • 1000 a.d. with better technology (better plow and horse collar) people in Europe started producing surplus food. This revived trade in Europe.
New States and technology • Renaissance period began in 1350 A.D. it was a rebirth of interest in learning about the culture of ancient Greece and Rome • Started a scientific revolution • Astrolabe- a tool that uses the position of the sun to find direction, latitude, and local time • lateen sails-triangle-shaped sails made it possible for ships to sail against the wind • Cavaral- a ship with multiple sails that was easier to steer and that made travel much faster
Portuguese Exploration • Henry the Navigator- set up a school in Portugal to study astronomy and geography • 1420 Portuguese started mapping and exploring Africa. • 1488 Bartolomeu Dias reached the southern tip of Africa • Vasco da Gama found a water route to eastern Asia (India) Going east.
Christopher Columbus (Italian)- sailed the Atlantic ocean in 1492 and discovered America. • King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain Paid for the expedition. • 1492 Christopher Columbus left Spain and sailed across the Atlantic
Columbus conti. • Columbus Landed in the Bahamas and thought it was India. • Founded Cuba(thought it was China) and Hispaniola • He brought back gold, parrots, spices, and Native Americas.
Line of demarcation- imaginary line running down the middle of the Atlantic • Spain controlled everything on the west • Portugal controlled everything on the east
Reason for colonization • GOD, Glory, and Gold
Fernando Magellan- crew was the first to circumnavigate the globe. • Columbian exchange- was a series of exchanges between native American and Europeans. • Food, animals, diseases, and technology. English brought the horse to the Americas • Europeans brought the horse to the Americas.
England and America • England started to colonize America because of religion and economic changes • Martin Luther –accused the church of corruption. He started the protestant reformation- trying to reform the church. 95 thesis • Henry VIII started a the Anglican church in England because he wanted his marriage annulled. • Puritans wanted to purify all elements of the catholic church out of the Anglican church • King James I would not do this so puritans went to America.
Merchants formed joint stock companies- where they pooled money together to finance big projects. • Trade and colonize other places • Sir Walter Raleigh- he landed on a island Roanoke and named it Virginia • Virginia Joint stock company founded Virginia for profit.
Jamestown • 1606 Virginia Company settled colony in (Virginia) called Jamestown . 1stsucessful English colony in america • Cpt. John Smith- began trading with the Powhatan confederacy • Chief Powhatan gave the settlement food. • John Rolfe –got a good strand of tobacco and settlers started making money.
James Town Conti. • Virginia company gave colonist the right to elect there own government called- House of Burgesses-the 1st elected legislative body in colonies • To attract people to Virginia used a term called headright -a system whereby land was given to settlers to entice them to go to Virginia
Maryland • 1632 King Charles gave Lord Baltimore land north of Virginia and he named it Maryland • Maryland is a proprietary colony- where a owner rules the colony and a safe haven for Catholics.
Seperatists • Separatist also known as pilgrims left England because of persecution and went to Holland. • They came to America on a boat called the Mayflower. They landed on a place called Plymouth. • William Bradford was in charge of the pilgrims. A native called Squanto helped them out. • That autumn they had a celebration
Puritans Originated from English Reformation. Believed they could remain in C.O.E. while working to rid it of Catholic practices. Established Massachusetts Bay Colony. (1630) Pilgrims Wanted to “separate” from C.O.E. Founded Plymouth Colony. (1620) Differences in New Englanders
Puritans came to America because of religious • Little tolerance for other religious in Amer. • Half-way covenant- children of church members were admitted to church • Children could not vote or take communion • Salem Witch Trials(puritan)- where 19 men, women and children were hanged for witchcraft.
John Winthrop-a puritan who got a charter to create the colony known as Massachusetts • He was also the 1st governor of N.E. • Conditions started to get worse in England so more people started coming over to America. This is called the Great migration
Rhode Island • Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson – both founded Rhode island • The charter provided for religious freedom and the separation of church and state.
Conneticut • Thomas Hooker- Moved his entire congregation from Massachusetts and settled a town called Hartford. • He wanted everyone to vote not just church members
King Philips’s War • In 1670, Colonial governments started demanding Natives follow English law. • Natives thought colonist were trying to destroy their life • Plymouth Colony tried to execute 3 Wampanoag warriors. Wampanoag warriors attacked settlers. • This marked the beginning of King Philip’s war. • The effect was few natives were left in New England .
Pennsylvania and Delaware • William Penn was a wealthy Quaker who started the colonies of Pennsylvania and Delaware • Quaker believed religion was a personal experience did not need a minister or church. • They were pacifist
Southern Colonies • James Oglethorpe founded Georgia . • He took people who owed debt out of English prison and bought them to Georgia. • This colony of Georgia would act as a buffer zone between south Carolina and the Spanish in Florida.
Reason for the French settlement of Quebec was because of Fur trading. Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain
Southern Econmy • The economy depended heavy on agricultural products • Tobacco, rice, and Indigo • Plantation -or large commercial estates where many workers lived on the land and cultivated the crops for the landowner. • indentured servant- person who agreed to work for an employer in the colonies in exchange for passage to America
Bacon’s Rebellion • Sir William berkeley controlled house of burgesses and said only land owners could vote. • 1675 a war broke out between back country farmers and native Americans. A wealthy farmer named Nathaniel Bacon led back country farmers.
Bacon’s conti. • Two things bacon rebellion did: • This showed that land needed to be available to backcountry farmers to keep Virginia. Stable. • Planters stopped using indentured servants and started using slaves.
Slavery in Colony • By 1870 10-12 million Africans came to America • The passage across the Atlantic was known as the middle passage. • Africans at first was treated as indentured servants. • Slave codes regulated slavery and defined the relationship between enslaved Africans and free people
New England Colonies • New England Colonies main industry was livestock, fishing, and boat building. • Triangle trade- three way trade between Europe ,Africa and the Americas.
Social classes Immerged in the city • Merchants (top) • Artisians- (2nd) skilled workers (most people) • People without skill or property • Indentured servants and enslaved Africans.
Middle Colonies • Middle Colonies: Farming was the main industry (wheat). • Population increased in England and made a need for wheat and flour. • This made the middle colonies very wealthy. • Dutch owned a port called New Amsterdam. Charles II of England took over it and renamed it New York
Mercantilism- a country would become more wealthy if it sold more goods than it bought. • Would accumulate more gold and silver • believed that a country should establish colonies in order to buy raw materials from the colonies and, in turn, sell them manufactured goods. • Navigation acts- said that all goods carried from the colonies must go on British ships. • Massachusetts colonies did obey this act and lost its charter and making it a royal colony.
Glorious Revolution is when William and Mary (protestant) took the thrown from James II in a bloodless take over. • English bill of rights- was passed and it outlined the powers the king did not have and the people did. (fair jury) • John Locke- “two treatises of Govt.” people had natural rights (life ,liberty, and property) • People create government to protect them. In return they agree to obey the laws. • If a government violates the people rights it should be overthrown.
The Enlightenment • Enlightenment a movement that challenged the authority of the church in science and philosophy while elevating the power of human reason • This emphasis on logic and reasoning was known as rationalism • John Locke said people were sinful but society and education could make a person better. • Benjamin Franklin- looked at science which led to several inventions (lighten rod, bifocals) , also he was a sign for social mobility
Great Awakening • Great Awakening a religious movement that stressed dependence on God and gained appeal among farmers, workers, and enslaved people • This rebirth of religious feelings became known as the Great Awakening. Two preachers of the Great Awakening were Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield. Both preachers led religious revivals throughout the colonies. • People needed to be born again (emotional experience with god • Methodist and Baptist • Preachers Condemned slavery