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Chapter 14 - 1. Ovine and Caprine Husbandry: restraint and breed Dr. Dipa Brahmbhatt VMD MPH. Objectives. Zoological classification of the species. Terminology associated with the species. Physiological data for the species Prominent anatomical or physiological properties of the species.
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Chapter 14 - 1 Ovine and Caprine Husbandry: restraint and breed Dr. Dipa Brahmbhatt VMD MPH
Objectives Zoological classification of the species. Terminology associated with the species. Physiological data for the species Prominent anatomical or physiological properties of the species. ID and describe characteristics of common breeds. ID and know the uses of common instruments relevant to the species. Normal living environments and husbandry needs of the species. reproductive practices of the species. Specific nutritional requirements of the species.
Reading Assignment Chapter 14: Ovine and Caprine Husbandry and small ruminants terminology
Zoological Classification of Sheep and Goats • Kingdom: Animal • Phylum: Chordata • Class: Mammalia • Order : Artiodactyla • Family: Bovidae • Genus and species • Ovis Aries • Capra Hircus
Terminology for Sheep Ewe: Adult female Ram: Adult male Wether: Castrated male Yearling ewe: Immature female Lamb: Neonate Wether lamb: Castrated neonate Ram lamb: Intact male neonate Ewe lamb: Female lamb Lambing: Act of parturition
Terminology for Goats Doe/nanny: Mature female Buck/billy: Mature male Wether: Castrated male Yearling doe: Immature female Kid: Neonate Buck kid: Male less than one year Doe kid: Female less than one year Kidding: Act of parturition
Sheep – Ovis aries Tail down Grazers close to soil (short tender grasses and clovers) Distant and aloof Distinct philtrum Curved horns Goats – Capra Hircus Tail up (unless sick) Natural browsers on top of plants (twigs, vine, shrubs) Curious and independent Distinct odor as they mature Straight horns Sheep and Goats: Both family Bovidae
Sheep & Goat Overview • Originated: Europe and cooler regions on Asia. • Important in temperate and tropical agriculture. • Provide fibers, milk, meat, and hides. • Sheep • Milk: more nutritious • Cheese: Feta (Greece, Italy, and France), Ricotta and Pecorino Romano (Italy) and Roquefort (France) • Fiber and meat • Goat: milk, meat, fiber • Versatile and efficient: developing countries.
Sheep & Goat Overview Sheep – declined in the U.S. (less than 0.2% of total farm revenue in U.S.). Mostly import. Avg: 50/ farm • Less demand for wool. • Declining demand for lamb in consumer diets. • Difficulty in obtaining/keeping reliable herders • Competition for public-owned rangeland. • Predators ~ 23% lost before maturity
Sheep breeds • Fine wool breeds: FWB • Merino, Rambouillet • Medium wool breeds: MWB • Cheviot, Corriedale, Dorset, Finnish Sheep, Hampshire, Montadale, Oxford, Polypay, Romanov, Shropshire, Southdown, Suffolk • Long wool breeds: LWB • Cotswold, Leicester, Lincoln, Romney,
Sheep Breeds • Meat Breeds or Medium wool – Mainly used for meat production – Are predominant in the U.S. – Include Dorset, Suffolk, and Hampshire • Fine Wool Breeds – Highest quality Merino from Spain and Rambouillet from France, predominant breed in Australia is the Merino • Long wool • Hair breeds
Jacob • Origin: England • Two, four, or six horns • Black and white fleece • Fleece is highly sought after • Unimproved breed • Rare breed
Barbado Originated in TX. Barbados Blackbelly sheep crossed with Rambouillet Hair: short hair - coarse wool with a large amount of kemp fibers. Sex: Males – horns; females - polled Color: tan, tan with a pale or black belly or pied Hair (meat)
Cheviot: MWB • Origin: Scotland • Color: White-faced sheep, wool-free face and legs, pricked ears, black muzzle/nostrils and black hooves • MWB: resilient and durable • Wool has a helical crimp • Ease of lambing & strong mothering instinct, resistant to cold, windy climate • Tend to be resistant to worms and footrot
Dorset: MWB • Origin:Southern England • MWB • Most popular white-faced breed in the United States (2nd after Suffolk: black face) • Horned and polled varieties exist Ewes breed out of season: fall lambs
Dorset White: ear, nose, face and legs, pink skin; Wool: head and legs, Polled and horned
Columbia: MWB • Developed by USDA: long wool breeds crossed with high quality Rambouillet • Developed to thrive on Western ranges • Produce medium wool and large amounts of meat
Corriedale: MWB • Origin: New Zealand & Southern England • Most popular breed in South America • White face, ear, legs and wool on head and legs • meat and wool • bulky, high density wool
Royal White • hair breed, privately funded in Hermleigh, Texas (heat resistant) • longer hair coat in the fall - shed spring. • pure white. • Ewes and rams are polled • Scrapie resistant?
Southdown: MWB • Origin: England • suited to farm flock production • Medium size: good conformation • Polled • Medium ears carried erect • Light brown face and legs with wool on head and legs • Adapted to wet conditions
Oxford: MWB • Origin: England • 2nd largest sheep breed • Brown/gray face and legs • White with black ears and bridge of nose • Meat-type breed • forage for its own food
Hampshire: MWB • Origin: Hampshire, England • Popular: Midwest • Black face, legs, nose • Mild demeanor • Polled • Unbroken wool cap • Meat, multiple births (wool)
Suffolk • Origin: England • Most popular breed - US • Large • large amounts of meat • White with black faces, ears and legs; droopy ears • Polled • Great market lambs
Merino: FWB • Origin: Spain • Most popular breed in Australia • wool breed: high quality • White-faced and legs, white wool on head and legs. Skin: pale • Rams: horned; ewes polled • A, B, C • American merinos: Wrinkled skin A > B • C: Little wrinkle: Delaine Merinos, popular US
Rambouillet • Origin: France • Developed from Spanish Merino • White-faced and legs, white wool on head and legs Skin: pale • Rams: horned/polled; ewes polled • Large angular body • Western states
Lincoln: LWB • Origin: England • largest breed of sheep • Long-wool • White faces and legs • Polled • Pronounced forelock between the ears, ringlets - wool • Crossbreeding programs
Breeds of Goat • Common meat breeds • Boer • Spanish • Pygmy • Common dairy breeds • French Alpine • LaMancha • Nubian • Saanen • Toggenburg • Common fiber breed • Angora • Cashmere
Goats • Meat Breeds: BoerGoat – White with brown head from South Africa • Milk breeds: Nubian, Toggenburg, Saanen, Oberhasli, Lamanche, Alpine – Heavy milk producers per body size vs. cattle production per body size • Hair breeds for Mohair (Angora) and Cashmere
Major Breeds of GoatsToggenburg (Switzerland) Oberhasli kid with wattles • Medium in size • Hair is short or medium in length • Ears are Erect and Forward • Face may be straight or dished • Color is solid varying from • Usually polled light fawn to dark chocolate • Distinct white markings • white ears with dark spot in middle • two white stripes down face from above each eye • white legs below knee and hock • white triangle on either side of the tail. • some have wattles Dairy Breed
Major Breeds of GoatsAlpine (French Alps) - Dairy • Medium to large sized • only breed with erect ears • all colors and combinations of colors: Pure white, black; shades: fawn, brown, gray buff, red • Hair is medium to short • straight face with roman nose • Polled and horned http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/goats/ Dairy Breed
Major Breeds GoatsGolden Guernsey (Channel island: British) • color varies from cream to brown • usually polled • lower in milk production than most Swiss breeds • higher in butter fat and protein % Dairy Breed
Major Breeds of GoatsSaanen(Switzerland) (NOT ROYAL WHITE) Dairy Breed • Usually yields 3-4% milkfat: “Queen of dairy goats” • medium to large in size • white or light cream in color. • Ears are erect and carried forward. • Face straight or dished • Are popular in US with dairies due to the quantity of milk they produce. • Large size, vitality, herd compatibility, great temperament