Overeating and Underachieving: The Effects of Physical Fitness on the Academic Achievement of Minority Students An Action Research Project Chevonne Byas EDUC 7021 T Fall 2010
Table of Contents • Abstract • Introduction • Statement of Problem • Review of Related Literature • Statement of the Hypothesis • Method • Participants • Instruments • References
Introduction • According to the U.S. surgeon general America has an obesity crises. • One in every three American children is obese or overweight.(Ogden& Carroll 2010) • The United States government invests millions of dollars a year into addressing childhood obesity. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) • Children who suffer from obesity have several health risk including • high blood pressure • high cholesterol • type 2 diabetes • sleep apnea • depression • And more (Taras &Potts-Datema 2005; Wittberg et al 2009) • Obesity disproportionately affects minority populations. (Ogden & Carroll, 2010; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)
Graphs on weight • Figure 1. Prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents ages 2- 19 • Figure 2. Comparison between childhood obesity in 1980 and 2008.
Introduction (Continued) • When compared to other countries the U.S. students are mediocre. (U.S. Department of Education) • The education system has an achievement gap • That is minority students do not perform as well as other students. (Burton, L.J., & VanHeest,J.L.;2008, James B Hunt, Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy) • Poor grades can be detrimental • Low self esteem (James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy) • Depression (Herman et al, 2008) • Behavioral problems (Johnson et al, 2005) • And more
Statement of the Problem • Physical education classes are being eliminated in the hopes of improving grades (Chomitz et al 2009,Taras & Potts-Datema 2005, Wittberg et al 2010). • despite the fact that studies suggest exercise improves cognitive ability.(Chomitz et al 2009,Ellemberg et al, 2010;Hillman et al, 2009; Tomporowski et al, 2008; ). • According to the School Health Policies and Programs study 2000 • Only 50% of 1-5 schools require Physical Education • Only 8% of elementary schools have daily physical education(Sibley & Etnier 2003 & Coe et al). • This is particularly concerning when it comes to minority students, as they are typically are risk for both obesity and lower grades. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services).
Statement of the Problem(Continued) • Similarly Recess periods are being removed from the school schedule or reduced (Sibley & Etnier 2003,Pellegrini & Bjorklund 1997,Fedewa & Clark 2010, Burton & VanHeest, 2007). • Studies find that both the physical rigor and the unstructured nature of recess improve cognitive performance and physical fitness(Pellegrini & Bohn 2005,Townes 2008,Guinhouya et al., 2005). • Studies associate the free play in recess with several health benefits • Higher self-esteem, • Lower anxiety and depression • Improved social skills (Pellegrini & Bohn 2005 & Fedewa & Clark 2010).
Review of Related Literature Pros Theorist • Piaget • The cognitive immaturity hypothesis • Children need a mental break in order to process information • Albert Bandura and Walter Mischel • Social Cognition Theory • Children learn from seeing the benefits of others actions • Ron Miller • Holistic education • Edward L. Deci and Richard Ryan • Self-determination theory (Sibley & Etnier 2003)
Review of Related Literature Pros Practioners • Alicia Moag-Stahlberg • Action for Healthy Kids • A nonprofit group dedicated to addressing childhood obesity. • Work with school to encourage better nutrition and exercise. • Paul Rosengard • Sport, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids(SPARK) (Vail, 2006) • A complete physical education curriculum • The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (AAHPERD), and the National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) • Physical Best • Created to supplement physical education programs
Review of Related Literature Pros • Studies have shown a positive relationship between physical activity and cognitive ability • Students perform higher on cognitive test taken immediately following aerobic exercise. (Boyle-Holmes et al 2010; Ellemberg et al, 2010;Hillman et al, 2009;Pesce et al, 2009; Tomporowski et al, 2008; ) • Studies have shown a positive relationship between fitness and academic achievement. • That it the more physically fit a student is the higher they score on standardized exams.(Burton et al 2007; Castelli et al 2007;Grissom 2005;Taras et al 2005; Wittberg et al 2009; Wittberg et al 2010)
Review of Related Literature Cons • Studies are unable to show causality (Chomitz et al. 2009; Tomporowski et al, 2008; Wittberg et al 2010) • There are a limited amount of studies with large samples of minority students. (Wittberg, et al. 2010)
Only 5 states (Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, New Mexico and Vermont) require physical education for kids in every grade. • Just three states--Alabama, Florida, and Louisiana--require that kids get at least 150 minutes of PE every week in elementary school. • Daily recess only required in nine states. (Shape of the nation report, 2010)
Hypothesis 30 minutes of aerobic exercise will raise the scores of low income, minority first grade students in math and reading on the Terra Nova exam. References Burton, L.J., & VanHeest, J.L. (2007). The importance of physical activity in closing the achievement gap. Quest, 59, 212-218. Boyle-Holmes, T, Grost, L, Russell, L, Laris, B.A., & Robin, L., Haller E., Potter S., Lee S. (2010). Promoting elementary physical education results of a school-based evaluation study. Health Education & Behavior, 37(3), 377-389. Castelli, D.M., Hillman, C.H., Buck S.M. & Erwin, H.E. (2007). Physical fitness and academic achievement in third and fifth grade students. Journal of Sport Exercise Psychology, 29, 239-252. Childhood obesity and academic outcome. (2008). James B. Hunt, Jr. Institute for Educational leadership and Policy Chomitz, V.R., Slining, M.M., McGowan, R.J., Mitchell, S.E., Dawson, G.F. & Hacker K.A. (2009). Is there a relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement? positive results from public school children in the northeastern united states. Journal of School Health, 79(1), 30-37. Ellemberg, D., & St-Louis-Deschenes, M. (2010). The effect of acute physical exercise on cognitive function during development. Psychology of Sport and Exercise , 11, 122-126. Grissom, J.B. (2005). Physical fitness an academic achievement. Journal of Exercise Physiology, 8(1). Herman, K.C., Lambert, S.F., Reinke, W.M., & Ialongo, N.S. (2008). Academic competence in first grade as a risk factor for depressive cogitations and symptoms in middle school. Journal of Counseling Psyhchology , 55(3), 400-410.
References (continued) Hillman, C.H., Pontifex, M.B., Raine, L.B., Castelli, D.M., Hall, E.E & Kramer A.F. (2009). The effect of acute treadmill walking on cognitive control and academic achievement in preadolescent children . Neuroscience , 159, 1044-1054. Johnson, W., McGue, M., & Iacono, W.G. (2005). disruptive behavior and school grades: genetic and environmental relations in 11-year-olds. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(3), 391–405. Ogden, C., & Carroll, M. Centers for Deisease and Control Prevention, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. (2010). Prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents: united states, trends 1963–1965 through 2007–2008. Washington, DC: Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/obesity_child_07_08/obesity_child_07_08.htm Pesce, C., Croca, C., Cereatti, L., & Bellucci, M. (2009). Physical activity and mental performance in preadolescents: effects of acute exercise on free-recall memory. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 2, 16-22. Taras, H., & Potts-Datema, W. (2005). Obesity and student performance at school. Journal of School Health, 75(8), 291-295. Tomporowski, P.D., Dacis, C.L., Miller, P.H. , & Naglieri, J.A. (2008). Exercise and children’s intelligence, cognition, and academic achievement. Education Psychol Rev, 20, 111-131. Wittberg, R., Cottrel, L.A., Davis, C.L., & Northrup, K.L. (2010). Aerobic fitness thresholds associated with fifth grade academica chievement. American Journal of Health Education, 41(5), 284-291. Wittberg, R., Northrup, K., & Cottrel, L. (2009). Children's physical fitness and academic performance. American Journal of Health Education, 2009(40), 1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. (n.d.). Childhood obesity Washington, DC: Retrieved from http://aspe.hhs.gov/health/reports/child_obesity/ U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Services. (2009). Special analysis 2009 international assessments. Washington, DC: Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2009/analysis/