Food Addiction: An Alternate State of Consciousness? Megan Curran, Stephanie Solso Kevin Nazario, Matt Sugihara
Summary • Food Addiction vs. Overeating: (Stephanie) • What is food addiction? • What is the difference between desires to overeat and literal addiction to food? • Food Addiction in comparison to other neurological addictions (Megan and Kevin) • Psychological Factors (Matt) • Is food addiction actually an alternate state of consciousness ? (All of us)
Food Addiction Vs. Overeating * What is Food Addiction? * • Compulsiveovereating with episodes of uncontrolled eating or binging. • Eating more quickly than normal • Eating past the point of being uncomfortably full • Eating when you are not hungry • Spending excessive amounts of time and thought focused on food • Secretly planning or fantasize about eating alone • Normally begins in childhood
Food Addiction Vs. Overeating * Effects of Food Addiction * • High Cholesterol • Diabetes • Heart Disease • Hypertension • Clinical Depression • Kidney Disease • Arthritis • Bone Deterioration • Stoke Food Addiction can also lead to obesity, but obesity does not necessarily mean food addiction!
Food Addiction Vs. Overeating *Difference between Desire to overeat and Food Addiction* • Desire to overeat is often based upon cravings for specific types of food, not insatiable want to eat • Food addiction is a constant desire, not only when you are hungry Based upon community surveys, it is estimated that ~2-5% of Americans suffer from food addiction
Dopamine • Many of these studies involve the dopamine system, one of the two main reward systems of the brain • Dopamine provides a stronger, more immediate pleasure, whereas serotonin provides a general feeling of happiness
STUDY: Food Effects On the Dopamine System • Sight, smell, and taste of food (mainly sight/smell) • Food stimulation produces increase in extracellular dopamine in dorsal striatum • Dopamine system in dorsal striatum plays a role in food motivation • Based on subjects’ self reported favorite foods • Correlation between the increase in dopamine from food stimulation and the changes in self reports of hunger and desire for food
Dopamine D2 Receptors in Drug Users And Food Addicts *Note* We realize that this image is of obese subjects, not someone necessarily addicted to food. The study glazes over this fact and there needs to be more studies on this* DA D2 (Dopamine Receptors) In the brains of controls, drug abusers, and obese subjects Control Addicted Drug Addiction Obese
Enhanced activity in oral somatosensory cortex in obese patients • PET scans taken from lean and obese subjects at a rest state (no food present or expectation of food) • Higher metabolic activity found in bilateral parietal somatosensory cortex. The specific areas matches the mapping of the mouth, lips and tongue involved for taste perception • Higher activity thought to mean higher sensitivity to palatability (taste) • Inference that this could lead to over-consumption due to reward sensitivity
“I eat because I’m unhappy,and I’m unhappy Because I eat” * psychological effects * • Withdrawal • Cravings • Depression • Fantasizing about food • Dependency
Discussion • Is food addiction an alternate state of consciousness? • Is addiction, in general, an alternate state of consciousness? • Do you think that this is a serious form of addiction as compared to drugs considering we must eat to survive?
Are you a food addict? • Do you think about your weight constantly ? • Do you eat differently in private than with other people? • Do you eat to escape from your feeling? • Do you eat when you are not hungry? • Have you ever stolen other people’s food? • Have you ever hid food to make sure you have “enough?” • Do you frequently feel shamed or guilty about what you have eaten? • Do you feel hopeless about your relationship with food?
References • "Enhanced resting activity of the oral somatosensory cortex in obese subjects" (Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D. Volkow, Christoph Felder, Joanna S. Fowler, Alejandro V. Levy, Naomi R. Pappas, Christopher T.Wong,Wei Zhu and NoelwahNetusil), Neuroreport (July 2, 2002) 13: 1151. • Markus, A. (2005). Neurobiology of obesity. Nature neuroscience, 8(5), 551. • Mc Cann, Scott. (2007). What is food addiction? Retrieved May 28, 2007 from, http://www.anonymityone.com/faq195.htm • New food-addiction link found. (2002) Retrieved May 28, 2007 from, http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/2002/bnlpr052002.htm • Scientists find link between dopamine and obesity. (2001) Retrieved May 28, 2007 from, http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/2001/bnlpr020101.htm • Sheppard, K. (1993). Food addiction : The body knows: Revised & expanded edition HCI. • Sugar addiction. (2003) Retrieved May 28, 2007 from, http://www.sfn.org/index.cfm?pagename=brainBriefings_sugarAddiction • The neurobiology of drug addiction - section IV: The action of cocaine. (n.d.) Retrieved May 28, 2007 from, http://www.nida.nih.gov/pubs/teaching/Teaching2/Teaching5.html • Volkow, N. D., & Wise, R. A. (2005). How can drug addiction help us understand obesity? [Electronic version]. Nature neuroscience, 8(5), 555-560. • Wang, Gene-Jack Volkow, Nora D Felder, Christoph Fowler, Joanna S Levy, Alejandro V Pappas, Naomi R Wong, Christopher T Zhu, Wei Netusil,Noelwah. (2002). Enhanced resting activity of the oral somatosensory cortex in obese subjects.Neuroreport, 13(9), 1151.