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Gene Expression and Regulation. Concepts: Gene expression must be carefully be regulated in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotic cells turn genes on and off by controlling transcription. Eukaryotic cells regulate gene expression at many points.

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gene expression and regulation
Gene Expression and Regulation
  • Concepts:
  • Gene expression must be carefully be regulated in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
  • Prokaryotic cells turn genes on and off by controlling transcription.
  • Eukaryotic cells regulate gene expression at many points.
  • Vocabulary: promotor, operon, exon, intron
gene expression and regulation1
Gene expression and regulation
  • Regulation of gene expression allows cells to respond to their environment and to interaact in a controlled manner.
prokaryotic gene expression and regulation
Prokaryotic gene expression and regulation
  • Turn genes on and off by controlling transcription.
  • Genes are often organized into operons
    • Operon a set of genes which codes for all the proteins needed to carry out a particular task
  • Promotors help RNA polymerase know where a gene starts
  • Promotors act as switches. Repressor proteins bind to promotors and prevent RNA polymerase from transcribing the gene.
  • When a substrate is present, it bonds to the repressor protein and is unbinds from the promotor and RNA polymerase can then transcribe the gene.
  • Example Lac operon. Genes to breakdown lactose.
eukaryotic control of gene expression
Eukaryotic control of gene expression
  • Multicellular organisms have specialized cells
  • Cells differ because they are expressing different genes
  • Gene expression is very highly regulated
    • Starting Transcription
    • mRNA processing
eukaryotes gene expression and regulation
Eukaryotes Gene expression and Regulation
  • Eukaryotic cells regulate gene expression at many points.
  • The start of transcription is close regulated:
    • Transcription factors bind to promotors and other DNA sequences and help RNA polymerase recognize the start of a gene
  • Promotors: section of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds
    • Transcription must start in right place to be read correctly
      • TATA box is a seven nucleotide promotor found in most eukaryotes (TATAAAA)
    • Enhancers: speed up transcription
    • Silencers: slow down transcription

Some genes control the expression of many other genes

mrna processing
mRNA processing
  • In Eukaryotes DNA contains non coding stretches called introns and coding stretches called exons.
  • DNA is transcribed into mRNA
  • The mRNA then has the introns removed and the addition of a cap and a tail.
  • Exons are spliced together and the mRNA goes to the cytoplasm where it can be translated into a protein
concept check
Concept Check
  • What is a promoter?
  • In eukaryotic cells, genes have a specific combination of regulatory sequences. What are they and how do they help cells carry out specialized jobs?
  • If a bacterium had a mutated supressor gene that could not bind to the lac operator, how might this effect regulation of the operon?
  • What are the three major steps in mRNA processing?
mutations
Mutations
  • Mutations are changes in DNA that may or may not affect phenotype
  • Some mutations affect a single gene while others affect the entire chromosome
  • Mutations can be caused by several factors

Vocabulary:

Mutation point mutation frameshift mutation

mutagen

slide9

Mutation: a change in an organisms DNA

  • Gene Mutation:
    • Point mutation: one nucleotide is substituted for another. Often caught and repaired by DNA polymerase if not may become a permanent change in the organisms DNA
    • Frameshift mutation: insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in a DNA sequence. This causes an entire shift in reading the three letter codons
    • To see how this effects the sequence take:
      • THE CAT ATE THE RAT VS THC ATA TET HER AT
chromosomal mutations
Chromosomal mutations
  • Homologous chromosomes exchange information in S phase of meiosis
  • If they don’t align properly and crossing over occurs, one chromosome may get two copies of a gene or genes (gene duplication) where the other chromosome may have no copies of the gene or genes (gene deletion)
  • Translocation one piece of chromosome breaks off and becomes reattached to a non homologous chromosome
  • May have extra or missing chromosome.
slide11

Mutations may or may not affect phenotype

    • Silent mutations: mutations which do not cause a change in phenotype
  • Mutations occur naturally or may be caused by mutagens
  • Mutations in egg or sperm cells may be passed to offspring.