complex carbohydrates n.
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COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES:. STARCHES, CELLULOSE, GUMS AND PECTINS. FOODS RICH IN CARBOHYDRATES. SOME CARBOHYDRATES ARE SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES MANY ARE COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES CALLED POLYSACCHARIDES BECAUSE THEY ARE MADE UP OF MANY SUGAR UNITS (SACCAHARIDES)

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complex carbohydrates

COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES:

STARCHES, CELLULOSE, GUMS AND PECTINS

foods rich in carbohydrates
FOODS RICH IN CARBOHYDRATES
  • SOME CARBOHYDRATES ARE SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES
  • MANY ARE COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES
    • CALLED POLYSACCHARIDES BECAUSE THEY ARE MADE UP OF MANY SUGAR UNITS (SACCAHARIDES)
    • POYSACCHARIDES ARE ALSO CALLED MACROMOLECULES BECAUSE THEY CONTAINS HUNDREDS OR THOUSANDS OF ATOMS EACH
types of complex carbohydrates
TYPES OF COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES
  • STARCHES
  • CELLULOSE
  • GUMS
  • PECTINS
starches
STARCHES
  • MOST ABUBDANT IN THE U.S. DIET
  • ARE MADE UP OF MANY SUGAR UNITS LINKED IN CHAINS CALLED POLYMERS
  • COMPOSED OF THE SUGAR GLUCOSE.
  • HAS TWO BASIC STRUCTURES
    • AMYLOSE – UNITS ARE LINKED IN A LINE (LINEAR)
    • AMYLOPECTIN – UNITS ARE BRANCHED
starches continued
STARCHES CONTINUED
  • MOST ARE A MIXTURE OF AMYLOSE AND AMYLOPECTIN
  • STARCHES COMPOSED MAINLY OF AMYLOPECTIN ARE CALLED WAXY STARCHES
  • PLANTS PRODUCE STARCH IN PACKETS CALLED GRANULES THAT ARE NOT SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER
  • GRANULES ARE A MIXTURES OF AMYLOSE AND AMYLOPECTIN
  • THE RATIO DETERMINES HOW STARCHES PERFORM IN FOOD MIXTURES
sources of starch
SOURCES OF STARCH
  • WHEAT FLOUR
    • BAKED GOODS
    • PASTA
  • RICE
  • CORN
  • POTATOES
  • OATS
  • GRAIN OR SEED
cellulose
CELLULOSE
  • A POLYSACCHARIDE MADE FROM LARGE AMOUNTS OF BETA – D GLUCOSE
  • SOME ANIMALS AND INSECTS CAN DIGEST BUT HUMANS CANNOT
  • KNOW AS FIBER IN DIET
  • FORMS THE RIGID STRUCTURE IN PLANTS (STRINGS IN CELERY ND MEMBRANES SURROUNDING CORN KERNELS
carbohydrate gums
CARBOHYDRATE GUMS
  • NOT GENERALLY AVAILABLE AT THE GROCERY STORE
  • GUMS ARE POLYSACCHARIDES THAT ARE SOLUBLE IN WATER AND EXTRACTED FROM PLANTS
  • USED TO THICKEN AND STABILIZE MIXTURES AND TRAP COLOR AND FLAVOR
  • MOST COMMON IS GUM ARABIC
  • SURROUNDS FLAVOR PARTICLES, PROTECTING THEM FROM MOISTURE, ABSORPORBTION, EVAPORATION, OR CHEMICAL OXIDATION
  • COMMONLY USED IN SALAD DRESSINGS AND GUMMY CANDIES
pectin
PECTIN
  • FOUND IN PLANT CELLS
  • MADE OF CHEMICAL DERIVATIVES OF SUGAR CALLED SUGAR ACIDS
  • NATURALLY OCCURS IN FRUITS
  • PRODUCES A STRONG GEL
  • REMAINS STABLE TO 1000 C (2120 F)
  • CREATES A THICKENING STRUCTURE
  • USED IN JAMS AND JELLIES
function of starch in food preparation
FUNCTION OF STARCH IN FOOD PREPARATION
  • PROVIDES STRUCTURE
    • RETAINS SHAPES
    • RESPONSIBLE FOR TEXTURE
  • BINDS
    • HOLDS PRODUCTS TOGETHER
    • STABILIZES TO PREVENT SETTLING
  • THICKENS (GELATINIZATION)
    • MOLECULES TAKE UP WATER
    • HYDROGEN BONDS FORM BETWEEN STARCHES AND WATER
structure
STRUCTURE
  • MANY BONDS BETWEEN STARCH AND WATER MOLECULES CAN FORM
    • STARCH MOLECULES ARE LARGE
    • SPACES BETWEEN THEIR SUGAR UNITS
    • TRAPS OR HOLDS WATER MOLECULES
    • THE MORE WATER THEY HOLD. THE THICKER THE MIXTURE
    • HEAT STRETCHES THE MOLECULES AND ALLOWS THEM TO HOLD MORE WATER
thickening power of compex carbohydrates
THICKENING POWER OF COMPEX CARBOHYDRATES
  • TOO MUCH HEAT WILL CAUSE STARCH MOLECULES TO BREAK DOWN AND LOSE THICKENING ABILITY AND STABILITY
  • THE PRESENCE OF SALT OR SUGAR ALSO AFFECTS STARCH’S THICKENING ABILITY BECAUSE THEY ARE ALSO POLAR MOLECULES THAT WILL BOND WITH THE WATER
  • GUMS AND PECTINS ARE ALSO USED FOR THICKENING FOOD PRODUCTS
which starch source is best
WHICH STARCH SOURCE IS BEST?

IT DEPENDS ON WHAT TYPE OF FOOD PRODUCT OR STARCH-LIQUID MIXTURE IT WILL BE USED IN. REMEMBER THAT THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR IS USUALLY FLAVOR.

types of starch and liquid mixtures
TYPES OF STARCH AND LIQUID MIXTURES
  • SLURRIES – UNCOOKED MIXTURES OF WATER AND STARCH USED IN PROCESSING AND CHEMICAL ALTERATIONS.
  • SOLS– THICKENING LIQUIDS THEY ARE POURABLE LIKE BATTER ARE COOKED SOLS LIKE GRAVY
  • PASTES – THICKENING MIXTURES THAT HAVE VERY LITTLE FLOW AND CAN BE STIRRED INTO HOT LIQUIDS WITHOUT LUMPING
  • GELS – MIXTURES THAT ARE RIGID AND ARE BOUND TOGETHER IN A 3-DIMENSIONAL NETWORK
properties
PROPERTIES
  • There are five properties that food scientists evaluate before selecting a starch for a starch-liquid mixture
    • Retrogradation- the firming of a gel during cooling and standing
    • Viscosity- the resistance of a mixture to flow
    • Stability- the ability of a thickening mixture to remain constant over time and temperature changes
    • Opacity- refers to how much an object blocks light
    • Texture- the way a product feels to the fingers, tongue, teeth and palate
how do you like your gravy
HOW DO YOU LIKE YOUR GRAVY?
  • OPAQUE VS. TRANSLUCENT
    • OPAQUE – USE FLOUR FOR THICKENING
    • TRANSLUCENT – USE CORNSTARCH
  • LUMPS OR NO LUMPS
  • If you prefer no lumps
    • GRAVY MIXES - may contain modified starches
    • COLD WATER PASTE – stir starch and an equal amount of water until smooth before adding to hot mixture
    • STARCH AND FAT – stir starch and an equal amount of heated fat until smooth and then slowly added liquid
    • STARCH AND SUGAR – combine starch and sugar thoroughly then add to liquid
nutritional impact
NUTRITIONAL IMPACT
  • DIGESTABLE STARCHES
    • PROVIDE 4 CALORIES OF ENERGY PER GRAM
    • MOST ABUNDANT AND ECONOMICAL SOURCE OF CALORIES
    • PROVIDE OVER HALF OF DAILY CALORIES
    • CARBS IN THE FORM OF GLUCOSE IS THE ONLY ENERGY SOURCE THE BRAIN CAN USE
    • STARCHES AND SUGARS CAN BE EFFICIENTLY CHANGED TO ENERGY
    • EXCESS CARBS ARE STORED AS GLYCOGEN
    • GLYCOGEN IS STORED IN THE LIVER AND MUSCLES
    • WHEN STORES ARE FULL THE EXCESS TURNS INTO FAT
nutritional facts
NUTRITIONAL FACTS
  • INDIGESTABLE FIBER
    • CELLULOSE
    • TERMS USED ON LABELS
      • FIBER
      • BRAN
      • BULK
    • HELPS YOU FILL FULL
    • AIDS IN DIGESTION AND ELIMINATION
    • SOURCES ARE COMPONENTS OF VEGTABLES, FRUITS, GRAINS AND ADDITIVES TO OTHER FOOD PRODUCTS TO SLOW DOWN STALING RATE
function of carbs
FUNCTION OF CARBS
  • PROVIDES ENERGY FOR BODY FUNCTIONS
  • PROVIDES BULK FOR DIGESTION PROCESSES
  • DECREASES BILE ACIDS REABSORPTION
  • LOWERS CHOLESTEROL LEVELS
  • PROMOTES UTILIZATION OF FAT
carbs are not the enemy
CARBS ARE NOT THE ENEMY
  • IN FACT, THEY ARE SO IMPORTANT THAT THEY REPRESENT THE LARGEST PORTION OF THE USDA’S MyPyramid SYMBOL