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Chapter 4 Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starch, Glycogen, and Fiber. Nutrition : Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney. Learning Objectives. Describe the major types of carbohydrates, and identify their food sources.

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chapter 4 carbohydrates sugar starch glycogen and fiber

Chapter 4 Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starch, Glycogen, and Fiber

Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Describe the major types of carbohydrates, and identify their food sources.
  • Describe the various roles of carbohydrates in the body, and explain why avoiding dietary carbohydrates may be ill-advised.
  • Summarize how fiber differs from other carbohydrates and how fiber may contribute to health.
learning objectives1
Learning Objectives
  • Describe the scope of the U.S. diabetes problem and educate someone about the long- and short-term effects of untreated diabetes and prediabetes.
  • Name components of a lifestyle plan to effectively control blood glucose and describe the characteristics of a diet that can assist in managing type 2 diabetes.
carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Ideal nutrients
    • Energy needs
    • Feed brain and nervous system
    • Keep digestive system fit
    • Keep your body lean
  • Digestible and indigestible carbohydrates
  • Complex vs. simple carbohydrates
a close look at carbohydrates
A Close Look at Carbohydrates
  • Contain the sun’s radiant energy
  • Green plants
    • Photosynthesis
      • Glucose
    • Plants do not use all of the energy stored in their sugars
  • Carbohydrate-rich foods
    • Plants
    • Milk
a close look at carbohydrates sugars
A Close Look at Carbohydrates - Sugars
  • Six sugar molecules
    • Monosaccharides
      • Glucose, fructose, galactose
    • Disaccharides
      • Lactose, maltose, and sucrose
    • Digestion of mono- and disaccharides
  • Chemical names end in -ose
a close look at carbohydrates starch
A Close Look at Carbohydrates – Starch
  • Polysaccharides
    • Starch
      • Plant’s storage form of glucose
    • Glycogen
    • Fiber
  • Nutrition
    • For a plant
    • For a human
a close look at carbohydrates glycogen
A Close Look at Carbohydrates – Glycogen
  • Storage form of glucose
    • Animal bodies
  • Chains are longer than starch
    • More highly branched
  • Undetectable in meats
a close look at carbohydrates fibers
A Close Look at Carbohydrates - Fibers
  • Human digestive enzymes cannot break bonds
    • Bacteria in large intestine
      • Fermentation
  • Soluble vs. insoluble fibers
the need for carbohydrates
The Need for Carbohydrates
  • Critical energy source
    • Nerve cells and brain
  • Preferred dietary sources
    • Starchy whole foods
      • Complex carbohydrates
  • Vital roles in the functioning body
the need for carbohydrates1
The Need for Carbohydrates
  • Weight loss
    • Caloric contribution
      • Conversion into fat storage
      • Refined sugars
    • Increase fiber-rich whole foods
    • Reduce refined white flour and added sugars
why do nutrition experts recommend fiber rich foods
Why Do Nutrition Experts Recommend Fiber-Rich Foods?
  • Lower cholesterol and heart disease risk
    • Complex carbohydrates
      • More than just fiber
    • Viscous fiber
      • Cholesterol synthesis
  • Blood glucose control
    • Whole grains
      • Soluble fibers
why do nutrition experts recommend fiber rich foods1
Why Do Nutrition Experts Recommend Fiber-Rich Foods?
  • Maintenance of digestive tract health
    • All kinds of fiber
    • Ample fluid intake
    • Benefits of fiber
      • Constipation, hemorrhoids, appendicitis, diverticulosis
why do nutrition experts recommend fiber rich foods2
Why Do Nutrition Experts Recommend Fiber-Rich Foods?
  • Digestive tract cancer and inflammation
    • Ways fiber works against cancer
      • Dilution
      • Folate
      • Resident bacteria
      • Butyrate
    • Recommended dietary sources
  • Healthy weight management
    • Appetite control
fiber recommendations and intakes
Fiber Recommendations and Intakes
  • Few people in U.S. meet recommendations
    • 20-35 grams of fiber daily
      • Based on energy needs, age, and gender
    • Adding fiber to diet
  • Too much fiber?
    • Dangers of excess
  • Binders in fiber
    • Chelating agents
    • Cause of deficiencies
refined enriched and whole grain foods
Refined, Enriched, and Whole-Grain Foods
  • Bread supplies much carbohydrate for many people
  • Kernel (whole grain) has four main parts
    • Germ
    • Endosperm
    • Bran
    • Husk
refined enriched and whole grain foods1
Refined, Enriched, and Whole-Grain Foods
  • U.S. Enrichment Act of 1942
    • Required additives
      • Addition in 1996
  • Advantages of whole grains vs. enriched grains
  • Finding the whole grains in foods
from carbohydrates to glucose digestion absorption
From Carbohydrates to Glucose – Digestion & Absorption
  • Starch and disaccharides are broken down
    • Monosaccharides for absorption
  • Starch
    • Begins in the mouth
      • Splits starch into maltose
    • Digestion ceases in the stomach
    • Digestion resumes in small intestine
      • Pancreas
    • Resistant starch
why do some people have trouble digesting milk
Why Do Some People Have Trouble Digesting Milk?
  • Ability to digest milk carbohydrates varies
    • Lactase
      • Made by small intestine
  • Symptoms of intolerance
    • Nausea, pain, diarrhea, and gas
  • Milk allergy
  • Nutritional consequences
  • Milk tolerance and strategies
the body s use of glucose
The Body’s Use of Glucose
  • Basic carbohydrate unit used for energy
  • Body handles glucose judiciously
    • Maintains an internal supply
    • Tightly controlling blood glucose concentrations
  • Brain, nervous system, red blood cells
splitting glucose for energy
Splitting Glucose for Energy
  • Glucose is broken in half
    • Can reassemble
    • Broken into smaller molecules
      • Irreversible
      • Two pathways
splitting glucose for energy1
Splitting Glucose for Energy
  • Glucose can be converted to fat
    • Fat cannot be converted to glucose
    • Dependence on protein when insufficient carbohydrate
      • Protein-sparing action
  • Ketosis
    • Shift in body’s metabolism
      • Disruption of acid-base balance
  • DRI minimum of digestible carbohydrate
how is glucose regulated in the body
How Is Glucose Regulated in the Body?
  • Two safeguard activities
    • Siphoning off excess blood glucose
    • Replenishing diminished glucose
  • Two hormones
    • Insulin
      • Signals body tissues to take up glucose
    • Glucagon
      • Triggers breakdown of glycogen
  • Epinephrine
handling excess glucose
Handling Excess Glucose
  • Body tissue shift
    • Burn more glucose
      • Fat is left to circulate and be stored
  • Carbohydrate storage as fat
    • Liver breakdown and assembly
    • Costs a lot of energy
  • Weight maintenance
    • Dietary importance and composition
glycemic index of food
Glycemic Index of Food
  • Elevation of blood glucose and insulin
    • Food score compared to standard food
  • Diabetes
    • Glycemic load (GL)
      • Lower GL = less glucose guild up and less insulin needed
  • Limitations of glycemic index
    • Resist notion of “good” or “bad” foods
diabetes
Diabetes
  • Prevalence of diabetes
    • Adults
    • Children
  • Prediabetes
    • Importance of testing
  • Perils of diabetes
    • Toxic effects of excess glucose
    • Inflammation
    • Circulation problems
accusation 1 carbohydrates are making us fat
Accusation 1: Carbohydrates Are Making Us Fat
  • Americans are fatter
    • Greater consumption of calories
      • 300-500 per day
  • Epidemiological studies
  • Weight loss
accusation 4 high fructose corn syrup harms health
Accusation 4: High-Fructose Corn Syrup Harms Health
  • Villainy has been exaggerated
  • Nature of HFCS
    • Half of added sugar in U.S. food supply
  • Obesity
    • HCFS not a proven cause
  • Liquid sugar and calorie control
  • Appetite regulation
    • Fructose does not stimulate insulin release
accusation 4 high fructose corn syrup harms health1
Accusation 4: High-Fructose Corn Syrup Harms Health
  • Effects on lipid metabolism
    • Fructose causes fats to accumulate in blood and liver
    • Metabolic activities of concern