Unit one memory
Download
1 / 60

Unit one - Memory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 87 Views
  • Uploaded on

Unit one - Memory. Cognitive Psychology - memory. Specification content: The multi-store model, including the concepts of encoding, capacity and duration. Strengths and weaknesses of the model The working memory model, including its strengths and weaknesses. Starter:.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Unit one - Memory' - symona


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Cognitive psychology memory
Cognitive Psychology - memory

Specification content:

  • The multi-store model, including the concepts of encoding, capacity and duration.

  • Strengths and weaknesses of the model

  • The working memory model, including its strengths and weaknesses


Starter
Starter:

In groups try to remember as much as you can on the picture you have just seen.

Then describe it to the rest of your group so that they can re-create the image from your description.

The group with the most accurate image wins!


Instructions
Instructions

  • The experimenter will be given a triangle of numbers from 1 number to 17 numbers.

  • Starting from the top, the experimenter will read out one line of numbers to the participant, who will then have to repeat them back correctly.

  • How many numbers do you think the participants will be able to remember?


A psychological experiment
A psychological experiment...

  • What did we find?

  • In an experiment in 1956, George Miller, a psychologist discovered that the capacity of short term memory was limited. Do our results fit with his?

  • How would this information be useful in everyday life?

    • Phone numbers?


How about this
How about this?

  • What about the letters below? How many can you remember. You have 10 seconds to learn them.

    FBIGTGJLSLOLUSACIABBCIBMBRBOMGABCITV

  • Could you remember more? Why?

  • Miller stressed the importance of “chunking” information.

  • Could you use this information in everyday life?


Short term memory and long term memory
Short-term memory and long-term memory

  • Psychologists distinguish between short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM)

  • STM cannot hold as much information and has a limited capacity.

  • LTM memory can hold an apparently an unlimited amount of information and has a vast capacity.


A study of encoding in stm and ltm baddeley 1966
A study of encoding in STM and LTM (Baddeley 1966)

  • Aims: To show that STM is largely based on acoustic code to find out whether LTM is also acoustically encoded, and to find out whether STM or LTM is semantically encoded, and to find out whether STM or LTM is semantically encoded

  • Procedures: Participants were given four sets of words to recall: 1) acoustically similar 2) acoustically dissimilar 3) semantically similar and 4) semantically dissimilar One group was asked to recall words immediately from STM and a second group was asked to recall words after a delay of 20 minutes from LTM


Unit one memory

  • Findings: The immediate recall (STM) group remembered fewer acoustically similar than acoustically dissimilar words. The delayed recall (LTM) group showed no significant difference when remembering acoustically encoded words but differences in semantically encoded words.

  • Conclusions: Findings suggest acoustic encoding in STM but semantic encoding in LTM


Criticisms
Criticisms:

  • Control in laboratory in laboratory experiments facilitates the identification of cause-and-effect relationships, thus findings have high internal validity. However, laboratory experiments into memory only involve memory of facts rather than memory of experiences, thus because the findings apply only to limited aspects of memory, they have low external validity.


Unit one memory

What is Cognitive Psychology?

Cognitive psychology is one of the more recent additions to psychological research, having only developed as a separate area within the discipline since the late 1950s and early 1960s.

Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that studies mentalprocesses including how people think, perceive, remember and learn.

Cognitive Psychologists believe that human beings are information-processing systems whose mental operations might be described in computational terms


Unit one memory

What part of

Cognitive Psychology

are we going to explore?




Unit one memory

The

Generation Game





Unit one memory

Swap and Mark…

Hairdryer

Tomato

Lamp

Gnome

Cup

Cheese

Beans

BBQ

Telephone

Jeans

Television

Kitten/Cat

Sunglasses

Cupcake

Wheelie Bin


Unit one memory

Primary and Recency Effect

Glanzer & Cunitz (1966)

They carried out a similar experiment using lists of words. They found the following:

Early and later words, in the sequence, are more likely to be recalled (primary and

recency effect) due to the long term and short term memory effects.

Primary effect occurs because the first words are likely to have been transferred into

the long term memory store.

Recency effect occurs because the last words in the sequence are likely to be still in

the short term memory store

Glanzer & Cunitz additionally found that if there was a 10 second delay before recall,

There was only primary effect – only LTM was affected.

This shows that there is a difference between STM and LTM


Unit one memory

How does your

memory work?


Unit one memory

Cognitive Psychologists try to use MODELS in order to try

and illustrate human cognitive functioning e.g. memory


Unit one memory

What is a “Model”?

(Not this type)

The Cognitive Psychologists tried to develop computer programs to mimic human cognitive functioning – however this didn’t work as the programs ended up being very time consuming & complex to operate…so…

They use flow charts (models) to illustrate the process…e.g. Multi Store Model

Sensory

Memory

Short Term

Memory

Long Term

Memory


Unit one memory

Basically think of “models” like the tube map…

  • Not an EXACT copy, but a representation of something

  • Helps us understand how something works


Unit one memory

The First Memory Model

Multi-store Model

(Atkinson & Shiffrin 1968)


Unit one memory

Multi-store Model

(Atkinson & Shiffrin 1968)

Attention

Rehearsal

Capacity

Rehearsal Loop

Interference

Decay

Terms

Duration

Sensory Memory (SM)

Encoding

Short Term Memory (STM)

Long Term Memory (LTM)

Model

Displacement


Unit one memory

The Multi-store Model

(Atkinson & Shiffrin 1968)

Rehearsal Loop

Stimulus

Input

Sensory

Memory

(SM)

Attention

Short Term

Memory

(STM)

Rehearsal

Long Term

Memory

(LTM)

Lost by interference

or decay

Not attended to

I.e. lost by DECAY

Lost by DECAY or

DISPLACEMENT

The model is a structural model because it focuses on the storage components of the memory system

Tip: Remember this structural model…as it could be very useful for the future.


Unit one memory

  • Key Features of the MSM

  • There are THREEdifferent types of memory

  • The Multi Store model describes the different types of memory as “memory stores”; Sensory Memory(SM), Short Term Memory (STM) and Long Term Memory (LTM)

  • The model illustrates memory as a flow of information through an information

  • processing system.

  • The flow of information is fixedi.e. information can not by-pass the Sensory memory and go straight into the Short Term Memory store – has to go in sequence!!!

  • At each stage of the process, there are constraints in terms of capacity, duration and encoding.


Unit one memory

What is meant by capacity, duration and encoding?

Amount of information which can be stored within the

Individual stores

CAPACITY

The length of time the information can be stored with the

Individual stores

DURATION

ENCODING

How the information is stored i.e. acoustic or semantic

Each memory store differs in terms of the concepts above...so we are going to

BREAK THE MODEL DOWN




Unit one memory

The Multi-store Model

(Atkinson & Shiffrin 1968)

Rehearsal Loop

Stimulus

Input

Sensory

Memory

(SM)

Attention

Short Term

Memory

(STM)

Rehearsal

Long Term

Memory

(LTM)

Lost by interference

or decay

Not attended to

I.e. lost by DECAY

Lost by DECAY or

DISPLACEMENT


Unit one memory

Sensory Memory

Information coming from the external environment firstly goes into the SENSORY STORE. The store holds information for a fraction of a second after the physical stimulus is no longer available.

There are threeseparate sensory stores to hold different kinds of input:

ICONIC STORE:

ECHOIC STORE:

HAPTIC STORE:

e.g. colours, shapes, faces

Stored as images

e.g. music, voices, alarms

Stored as sounds

e.g. texture

Stored as feelings


Unit one memory

Sensory Memory Store

The Sensory Store sifts through a huge amounts of incoming sensory information in order to avoid overloading the system. The sensory memory holds on to an image/sound of the environment for a few milliseconds whilst they are scanned to decide which ones should be given attention and passed through the system for further processing.

Attentionis an important term in the model. The sensory information,

given attention, pass through to the Short Term Memory.


Unit one memory

Sensory Memory

Look out for what colour the EXIT sign is?


Unit one memory

  • Questions

  • How many glasses were on the table?

  • Were there any men in the picture? If so how many?

  • What colour flowers were on the table?

  • Was the lady in the black dress, in the centre of the picture, wearing a necklace?


Unit one memory

Two men

Necklace

3 glasses

White flowers


Unit one memory

You remember this because….

Your ATTENTION was focused on the question “what colour was the EXIT sign? ”

Therefore, according to the Multi Store Model, the information went from your SENSORY MEMORY STORE (ICONIC STORE) and filtered into your SHORT TERM MEMORY because you paid ATTENTION to the stimulus.

Attention

Long Term

Memory

Sensory

Store

Short Term Memory

Input Stimulus

(Party Scene)

Rehearsal

Exit Sign

Exit Sign

Filtering Party

Scene



Unit one memory

The Multi-store Model

(Atkinson & Shiffrin 1968)

Rehearsal Loop

Stimulus

Input

Sensory

Memory

(SM)

Attention

Short Term

Memory

(STM)

Rehearsal

Long Term

Memory

(LTM)

Lost by interference

or decay

Not attended to

I.e. lost by DECAY

Lost by DECAY or

DISPLACEMENT


Unit one memory

Material given ATTENTION in the Sensory Memory (SM) will pass through to the Short

Term Memory.

The Short Term Memory holds the information an individual is consciously thinking

about at any one time.


Unit one memory

Encoding pass through to the Short

Changing information to be remembered into a form which makes it suitable for the memory to deal with.

Short Term Memory prefers to encode information according to it’s sound – echoic.

Example

Your friends ask you to get them Subway sandwiches – they ask for – you have to wait in the a very long queue:

No Pickles

How are you going to remember them???


Unit one memory

Encoding - STM pass through to the Short

I would repeat them in my head – SUBVOCALLY – slightly to ourselves

You may choose to repeat them out loud – EXPLICITY VOCALISE


Unit one memory

Encoding - STM pass through to the Short

  • It therefore suggests that the Short Term Memory (STM) prefers to code things

  • acoustically(in sounds).

  • This preference for sound was demonstrated by Conrad (1964)

  • Conrad (1964)

  • Used a string of letters to investigate short term memory

  • A typical string maybe “AKJBSL”

  • Letters presented very quickly on screen

  • Results were very interesting….

  • The letters B and V were muddled with P – sound the same

  • But P was very rarely muddled with S

  • Conrad said that it was the sound of the letters that mattered in encoding in the STM.

  • Even though the visual information was presented on screen it must have been

  • changed into sound for the errors to have occurred


Unit one memory

Capacity - STM pass through to the Short

Capacity is the amount of information which can be held.

“THE MAGIC number 7+/-2” Miller (1956)

Miller suggested that we could hold between five and nine items of information.

Example: try to remember one of these telephone numbers-

Cheryl Coles telephone number:

0 7 7 8 9 9 5 6 7 6 5 1

Or, Michael Buble telephone number:

0 7 7 9 5 1 6 8 6 9 0 1


Unit one memory

It pass through to the Short ’s difficult isn’t it…

Now try “CHUNKING”

Cheryl Coles telephone number:

0 7 7 8 9 9 5 6 7 6 5 1

Or, Michael Buble telephone number:

0 7 7 9 5 1 6 8 6 9 0 1

Before the telephone numbers were too long – but – by CHUNKING the information

into meaningful chunks should make it easier to remember!!!


Unit one memory

Duration – STM pass through to the Short

The length of time or duration that information can be held on to the STM is also limited

If a memory is not in use, it will quickly disappear

By repeating the information we are effectively making it re-enter the STM

Rehearsal presents the information from disappearing and we can hold onto it for longer


Unit one memory

  • Duration – STM pass through to the Short

  • STUDY – Peterson & Peterson (1959)

  • Presented participants in their study with a TRIGRAM (three letters in alphabet – GLC)

  • Then asked them to count backwards in threes

  • It was found after 18 seconds of counting backwards they could not remember the

  • trigrams

  • The study by Peterson & Peterson suggested that STM has a limited duration.

  • If we do not use information in our STM quickly it decays and is lost.

  • The study also shows that STM is sensitive to INTERFERENCE


Unit one memory

Some researchers have distinguished between the types of rehearsal:

Maintenance Rehearsal – just keeps information in the Short Term Memory – Example repeating something over and over

Elaborative Rehearsal – the information is used and changed in someway. The way the information is rehearsed is important in whether it becomes more permanent. It is through elaborative rehearsal that information is passed into the LONG TERM MEMORY


Unit one memory

LONG TERM MEMORY rehearsal:


Unit one memory

The Multi-store Model rehearsal:

(Atkinson & Shiffrin 1968)

Rehearsal Loop

Stimulus

Input

Sensory

Memory

(SM)

Attention

Short Term

Memory

(STM)

Rehearsal

Long Term

Memory

(LTM)

Lost by interference

or decay

Not attended to

I.e. lost by DECAY

Lost by DECAY or

DISPLACEMENT


Unit one memory

Long Term Memory is where information is held for some period of time. It could be

held for a few seconds to a life time.

Where all our knowledge/skills is held – swimming/cycling/cooking/names.

Without the Long Term Memory we would not be able to do even the simplest task.


Unit one memory

Encoding - LTM period of time. It could be

Information in the Long Term Memory is encoded in terms of meaning.

Another term for “meaning” is “semantic”

An example –

If we are trying to remember the word “barn” we are more likely to say “shed” or “hut”

rather than “barn” – therefore we are looking at meaning rather than sound.


Unit one memory

Capacity – LTM period of time. It could be

UNLIMITED – estimating a upper limited is IMPOSSIBLE!!!

The amount of information that the LTM can hold is certainly greater than the size

And number of brain cells.

Example:

Luria (1968) studied a Russian journalist called Solomon Shereshevesky who appeared to have a limitless memory capacity. It is claimed that his memory was so perfect, he could remember nearly every detail of his life.


Unit one memory

Duration - LTM period of time. It could be

  • STUDY – Bahrick et al (1975)

  • Bahrick et al (1975) 392 people were asked to name ex class mates.

  • They were then given photos and asked to recall the names of the people shown (photo recognition test) or given the names and asked to match them to a photo (name recognition test).

  • Within 15 years of leaving school, participants could still recognise 90% of names and faces. After 48 years recognition was still good at about 75%


Unit one memory

Homework: period of time. It could be

Make an A4 sized collage of how you remember things using the multi-store model that was studied in this lesson.

Feel free to use pictures from the internet, newspapers or magazines, with relevant annotations for your collage.

Bring in for Friday!

Revise key terms: Duration, capacity, encoding, semantic, long term memory, short term memory, recall