state n.
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State. A territory with defined boundaries A population with a common identity-not necessarily national Internal administration, government Diplomatic recognition Sovereignty. International system. Units/agents/actors Structure Interdependence between units/agents

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  • A territory with defined boundaries
  • A population with a common identity-not necessarily national
  • Internal administration, government
  • Diplomatic recognition
  • Sovereignty
international system
International system
  • Units/agents/actors
  • Structure
  • Interdependence between units/agents
  • Regular interactions between units
  • Functional differentiation between units
international system1
International system
  • Nature of units/relative capabilities determine structure

i.e. distribution of power: if there is concentration of power in one state-unipolar system;

in two states-bipolar

In three states-tripolar

types of international systems
Types of international systems
  • Independent state system
  • Hegemonic state system-one preponderant state determine basic rules
  • Imperial state system-supremacy of one state-loss of sovereignty for the other units
  • Feudal system
greek city states
Greek city states
  • Athens-Sparta rival city states
  • Start as an independent state system
  • End up as dual hegemony system
  • Persian threat-lead to military power in Athens-increase tendencies of hegemonic rule
roman empire
Roman empire
  • Encompass all of Europe, Middle East and Africa
  • Major restructuring of these areas under imperial state system
  • Introduce ideas of international law and international society
roman inputs to ir theory
Roman inputs to IR theory
  • Stoics-ability to reason sets humanity apart-so universal laws of humanity
  • Natural rights and equality of people
  • Universal image of humanity that goes beyond the boundaries of city states
medieval europe
Medieval Europe
  • Fall of Rome-476 A.D decentralization of political authority
  • Only major authority is religious/political-Catholic church
  • Holy Roman empire-Charlemagne 800 A.D-major political organization
feudal europe
Feudal Europe
  • Public authority in private hands-

Lords controlled their own territory-private possession

  • Predominance of lords over kings
  • Fragmentation and decentralization of power
  • defined authority in terms of a hierarchy of personal relations, with only loose reference to territorial rights.
power and authority of the church
Power and authority of the Church
  • Central authority
  • Legitimation of the secular rulers- kings through papal authority
  • That is because he is the presumptive living embodiment of Christ’s will
  • Owns 1/3rd of all land in Europe
  • Cannot be taxed
  • Pope represent highest authority and kings are subservient to Pope
emergence of sovereign states
Emergence of sovereign states
  • Kings acquire financial resources-taxes and coercive power-right to use force
  • Clash between secular and religious order
  • Questioning of religious authority of the Church-as kings gain power they question the central authority of the Church
impact of reformation
Impact of reformation
  • Divide secular and religious authority
  • Open the road for a political authority
  • Oppose centralization under the Church
peace of westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
  • 1618-1648 Thirty years Wars-Holy Roman empire-protestants vs.catholics
  • Shifting balance of power-as in Peloponnesian Wars
  • Westphalia-1648 ended the central authority of the church
post westphalian order
Post Westphalian order
  • sovereignty-not recognize a higher authority than one’s own
  • Territoriality-right to political authority over a well defined area
  • Autonomy-no external actors enjoys authority in that area
  • Independent state system
article lxiv 64
Article LXIV (64)
  • And to prevent for the future any Differences arising in the Politick State, all and every one of the Electors, Princes and States of the Roman Empire, are so establish’d and confirm’d in their antient, Prerogatives, Libertys, Privileges, free exercise of Territorial Right, as well Ecclesiastick, as Politick Lordships, Regales, by virtue of this present Transaction: that they never can or ought to be molested therein by any whomsoever upon any manner of pretence
  • Article 64 establishes territoriality and the right of the state to choose its own religion, as well as the right to noninterference by other states in any of these matters.
article lxv 65
Article LXV (65)
  • They shall enjoy without contradiction, the Right of Suffrage in all Deliberations touching the Affairs of the Empire; but above all, when the Business in hand shall be the making or interpreting of Laws, the declaring of Wars, imposing of Taxes….. Above all, it shall be free perpetually to each of the States of the Empire, to make Alliances with Strangers for their Preservation and Safety; provided, nevertheless, such Alliances be not against the Emperor, and the Empire, nor against the Publick Peace, and this Treaty, and without prejudice to the Oath by which every one is bound to the Emperor and the Empire.
  • This article establishes that no supernational authority (i.e., the Catholic Church or the Holy Roman Empire) can make or negate alliances made between sovereigns for the purpose of protecting their respective state’s security
article 67
Article 67
  • Article 67 establishes that sovereign states can determine their own domestic policies, free from external pressures and “with full Jurisdiction within the inclosure of theirWalls and their Territorys.”
sovereign state
Sovereign state
  • Make treaties with other sovereign states
  • Do not interfere in domestic politics of others
  • Develop strong controls over its borders
  • Actively engage in state building activities
westphalian order
Westphalian order
  • a system of territorially organized states operating in an anarchic environment
  • Constitutionally independent (sovereign) actors
  • have exclusive authority to rule within their own borders.
  • sovereignty is exclusive property rights exercised over a definite territorial space,
  • all the landmass of the world is carved up into spatially exclusive units
  • states do not have overlapping jurisdictions regarding territory (exceptions??)
  • states have borders that serve to physically protect from outside threats
  • Promote economic objectives/cultural values
  • brings together physical space and public authority.
territoriality vs authority
Territoriality vs.authority
  • Political organization is territorial when the legal reach of public authority is coterminous with certain spatial boundaries,
  • Does this mean there are other types of authority that is not territorial?
  • Contrast to medieval political organization-multiple forms of authority coexist
krasner organized hypocrisy
Krasner-organized hypocrisy
  • Territory
  • recognition,
  • Autonomy
  • Control
  • These are the attributes of sovereignty
  • However, very few states possess all of them
uses of sovereignty
Uses of sovereignty
  • control over borders,
  • external recognition,
  • ultimate right to decide,
  • Capacity to exclude external authority structures.