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Predictors of Resident Role Model Status Within Therapeutic Communities. Ashleigh Hodge, MSW Keith Warren, Ph.D. & Jessica Linley, MSW The Ohio State University, U.S.A. Background. Residents expected to act as role models (De Leon, 2000; Perfas , 2012)

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predictors of resident role model status within therapeutic communities

Predictors of Resident Role Model Status Within Therapeutic Communities

Ashleigh Hodge, MSW

Keith Warren, Ph.D. &

Jessica Linley, MSW

The Ohio State University, U.S.A.

background
Background
  • Residents expected to act as role models

(De Leon, 2000; Perfas, 2012)

    • Resident stages: Learn  Practice  Model
    • Recognized position
    • Socially reinforced
    • Fundamental to reciprocity
  • For many residents, acting prosocially is new

(De Leon, 1994)

    • Push-ups and pull-ups assist with “right living”
  • Limited research on resident role modeling
    • Existing: Staff as role models
    • This is an exploratory study
      • Q. What personal and network characteristics predict staff ratings of resident role model status?
resident demographics
Resident Demographics
  • Sample size: n =49 TC residents (55%)
  • Gender: Women
  • Age
    • Range = 20-55 years
    • Mean = 32.82years
    • Median = 31 years
  • Race
    • 87.8% Caucasian
    • 10.2% African American
    • 2.0% Hispanic

(n= 49 Residents)

resident demographics1
Resident Demographics
  • Previous incarcerations
    • 75.5% (n=37) had never been incarcerated before
    • 14.3% (n=7) had one previous incarceration
    • 8.2% (n=4) had 2 previous incarcerations
    • 2.0% (n=1) had 3 previous incarcerations
methodology

(Hanneman & Riddle, 2005)

Methodology

A

B

  • Social Network Analysis - study of ties between a set of “actors”
    • Directed social network
  • Freeman out-degree centrality (UCINET)
    • How many verbal push-ups or pull-ups is participant A sending?
    • Participant activity (help given to peers) in the program.
  • Freeman in-degree centrality (UCINET)
    • How many verbal push-ups or pull-ups is participant A receiving?
    • Help received from peers in the program.
methodology1
Methodology
    • What personal and network characteristics predict staff ratings of resident role model status?
  • Tapestry Interaction Log
    • Residents tracked peer interactions for 12 hours
    • 6 relevant activities:
      • Gave verbal pull-up
      • Gave verbal push-up
      • Peers chosen at meals (breakfast, lunch & dinner)
      • Gave verbal compliment
    • Archived demographic data were also collected on each participant
  • Role Model Questionnaire Staff Ratings
    • 2 weeks later
    • 6 Staff members, answered individually.
    • Randomized list of residents (control for name order bias)
    • “Yes” / “No” option for role model rating
    • Scores summed for each (range 0-6; 6 =most highly rated)
results
Results
  • Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test (SPSS)
    • # Staff who rated residents (DV)
    • Poisson distributed (p=.954)
results1
Results
  • Hypothesis: The more affirmations and corrections TC residents give to their peers, the more highly they will be rated by staff as role models.
  • Model 1
    • Sending more pull-ups  higher staff ratings
    • Sending more push-ups  lower staff ratings
    • Increase in phase  higher staff ratings
results2
Results
  • Model 2
    • Push-ups and pull-ups received measure expected peer interactions
    • Controlled for verbal push-ups and pull-ups received
    • Coefficients for verbal pull-ups and push ups sent to peers and phase are nearly identical to Model 1 & remain statistically significant
    • Push-ups and pull-ups received did not reach statistical significance
results3
Results
  • Model 3
    • Informal friendship network also exists
      • Compliments received
      • Chosen at meals
      •  not statistically significant
    • Coefficients for verbal pull-ups and push ups sent to peers and phase are nearly identical to Model 1 & remain statistically significant
results4
Results
  • Model 4
    • Controlled for demographical influence
      • Age
      • Race/Ethnicity
      • # Previous Incarcerations
      •  not significant predictors of role model status
    • Coefficients for verbal pull-ups and push ups sent to peers and phase are nearly identical to Model 1 & remain statistically significant
discussion
Discussion
  • Staff as a coherent group form judgments based on criteria indicated by behavioral measures
    • Verbal push-ups and pull-ups not always observed by staff
    • Residents who gave more corrections to peers were rated more highly by staff as role models
  • Staff are driven by implementable, achievable behavior
    • Resident program accordance –vs – Peer judgments or Resident personal characteristics
    • Reputation and cooperation
  • Role model finding and reinforcement theory
    • Giving push-ups is viewed as the most basic, easy task
      • Pushups sent rather than received.
      • Does not mean that it is not valuable.
    • Giving pull-ups is more difficult
      • Requires resident to identify poor behavior (self or other)
      • Requires resident’s willingness to face/confront that poor behavior (self or other)
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Limitations
    • Results are preliminary
    • This was a pilot study with a small sample size containing only female residents
    • Data gathered over one day only
  • What’s next?
    • Gathering re-incarceration and graduation data of participants
    • Looking at the influence of work crew assignments
  • Implications for future research?
    • Proof it is methodologically possible to do social network surveys in TCs and get meaningful results
references
References
  • De Leon, G. (2000). The therapeutic community: Theory, model, and method. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.
  • De Leon, G. (1994). The therapeutic community: Toward a general theory and model. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series: Therapeutic Community: Advances in Research and Application, 144. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
  • Hanneman, R. A. & Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to social network methods. Riversdale, CA: University of California, Riverside (published in digital form at http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/)
  • Perfas, F.B. (2012). Deconstructing the therapeutic community: A practice guide for professionals. North Charleston, SC: Create Space.