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DATA HANDLING. IGCSE ICT Mrs. Ghazaal Ali Manarat Jeddah International School for Girls. Data Handling. Applications which have a particular need for storing data for later use.

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data handling


IGCSE ICT Mrs. Ghazaal Ali Manarat Jeddah International School for Girls

data handling1
Data Handling
  • Applications which have a particular need for storing data for later use.
  • Not only is input data and processing very important, but so is the storage, in particular the structure that the data takes when it is stored
data collection
Data Collection
  • Sometimes done automatically
  • Sometimes done using surveys
    • Conduct surveys using data capture forms

Data Capture Forms can be on paper or can be electronically based

Make the form look official

Spaces should be supplied for the answers

Need to limit the possibility of inaccurate data being entered. Therefore questions should have a small possible answer set.

Should the form have names or be anonymous?

If dates (such as date of birth) are asked for, then the form must make it clear how the information should be entered (many different ways to enter the date)

Instructions for filling in

Will OCR or OMR be used for entering the data into the computer? Typing in the data introduces the possibilities of data entry errors.

The designer of the form must also have a clear idea of why data is needed and consequently which data must be collected in order to satisfy the needs of the application.


Sample Library Survey for a school library, to discover why the library is not being used enough

Library Survey

Please Complete The Following Questions

Name ______________

Address: _____________


Date of Birth ___/___/___

When was the last time that you were in the school library?______________

What did you go in for? ________________________________________

Which books do you like?________________________________________

What would you like to see in the library apart from books?______________

Do you ever go into the library to use the computers?___________________

Are the staff helpful?__________________________________________

Any other comments?__________________________________________

Thank you for filling in this form


Address Lists

‘What happens to all the information which you supply on the form?’

One of the pieces of information which we are often asked to supply is our address. Address lists are very valuable. Organisations which deal through mail order need to be able to send brochures to potential customers so a list of names and addresses is something which they can use for their business.

The first and most valuable list of addresses is that of all the people who have bought from the company in the past. If the business wants to expand their list of names and addresses they can use a set of addresses at random, example: from the telephone directory. Many people might not be interested and the cost of the mailing will have been wasted. However if they use the results from a survey similar to the one for the school library and only mail those people who are interested in a particular products (example: science fiction books), then the company could expect a higher proportion of people to respond. The list is now a more specialised one because it is a list of people who share a particular quality. Lists like these are very important to organisations.


Tuck Shop Records

  • Probably run on a simple basis of buying some snack foods and selling them for slightly more than they cost.
  • This may involve keeping the records using a computer system.
  • The records will be used for numerical purposes and hence a spreadsheet would be the most sensible form of record keeping to use.

School Reports

  • Data which is individual to that student
    • This would include the students name and form. This info is stored in the ‘student file’ .
  • Student Progress
    • The form teacher will probably have to compile a report on the student’s progress and hence their name will need to be one the report. This can be found by using the form name as the foreign key and looking up the name of the form teacher in the ‘teacher file’. This can then be added to the report.
  • The number of absences that the student has had and the number of times they have been late
  • Teacher comments
  • Date of the report


When the reports are completed they can be printed out out for distribution to parents. Note that the most suitable printer needed for this will be a laser printer. It is fast enough to print the large number of reports quickly and also can print to the necessary quality. An inkjet printer would be impractical because the volume would be too great and cartridges would need to be changed in the middle and it would take a long time. A colour laser printer may be used if the school uses a colour logo and wants to give a good impression.


School Libraries(for more info play slideshow and click on the link)

Some libraries in schools are too small to require computerisation. However, it is a good example to show how a system would work for a larger library. We will use this as an example, except we will only have 5 books and 6 students. It will be enough for us to understand how a larger library system might work.

Two files can be used to identify the books that are held in the library and the students who are allowed to borrow the books. A third file is needed to allow us to keep track of books (the main thing that computers need to be used for in libraries is to keep a check on which books are out on loan and who has them).

Note that in order to be useful it is necessary to have three files with two sets of foreign keys.


The three files are now linked together using the Name field and the ISBN field as foreign keys

If the librarian wants to know where a particular book is and how to get it back if it is still on loan, they only need to know the title of the book. They can search and find the ISBN, then see who has it and find out their Form and speak to the student in their form class.

retail industry
Retail Industry

Retailers rely heavily on database software to promote products, contact customers with special offers, or send customers information.

shoe retailer
Shoe Retailer
  • Asiya is a shoe fan and has a large collection of shoes. Since she buys a lot of shoes from a particular store, she has a store loyalty card, which allows her to collect ‘points’ for each item purchased. These points accumulate and can eventually be ‘spent’ on other products that the store sells. As a loyalty club member, Asiya has a card that is similar in appearance and size to a credit card. When the magnetic stripe is read at the check out, it:
  • Identifies her to the system
  • Allows the check-out machine to access her record in the database
  • Allows the system to update her record with details of this purchase and her points total
  • Causes the system to retrieve certain data and print it on her receipt
  • Every month, she receives a letter from the store. It contains details of what she has bought, tells her the current points and gives information about special products that are available to her as a loyalty card holder.