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Data Handling. Topic 1. Data. Data is the raw material entered into a computer system. This raw material could be text, numbers, graphics, audio, animation or video It is unorganised facts that mean little by themselves Eg : 1 Year

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slide2
Data
  • Data is the raw material entered into a computer system.
  • This raw material could be text, numbers, graphics, audio, animation or video
  • It is unorganised facts that mean little by themselves
            • Eg:
                  • 1
                  • Year
  • Trivial fact: datum=single item of datadata* = plural of datum

*[commonly used and is accepted as both the singular and plural forms of the word]

information
Information
  • When data is given a structure and put into context it becomes information
    • aword processed document that we can read and understand
    • A computer interprets and executes instructions to process the data into information
    • Eg:
        • Today + will + be + temperature + hot + a + 32 + day + a + with + degrees + of
        • Today will be a hot day with a temperature of 32 degrees
slide4

Classifying data as information is not always clear and absolute.

  • What is information to one person may be data to another person.
  • Information is a vital tool.
  • Organisations cannot exist without it’s data/information.
    • ‘the more information the better’ – only if the information is suitable, accurate, timely and reliable
analog
Analog
  • Analog data is represented by using continuous signals [wave form] that vary in strength and quality.
    • Eg: an analog clockBecause the movement is continuous, a measurement may be taken at any time.
    • Eg: Human speechPeople combine words into sentences which are continuous
digital
Digital
  • Computers are digital
  • They recognize two states: off and on
  • Digital data is represented using discreet measurements in the form of digits/numbers – 0 & 1
  • The two digits [0 & 1] represent these two states
    • 0 represents the electronic state of off
    • 1 represents the electronic state of on
  • Eg: a digital clock Shows the time as a certain number of hours and minutes. Time does not change continuously, but in a series of steps, jumping from second to second and minute to minute.
binary
Binary
  • A digit is a single place that can hold numerical values between 0 and 9 - base-10 number system – known as decimal number system.
  • Computers happen to operate using the base-2 number system, also known as the binary number system.
  • Why base-2?Because it makes it a lot easier to perform with current electronic technology.
binary1
Binary
  • Technology uses a binary system that has just two unique digits – 0 & 1
  • Each digit is called a bit (Binary digIT)
  • A bit is the smallest unit of data that a computer can process
  • On it’s own a bit is not very informative
  • When 8 bits are grouped together as a unit, they form a byte.
  • A byte provides enough different combinationsof 0s and 1s to represent 256 individualcharacters.
binary2
Binary
  • How do you figure out what the value of a binary number is? You do it in the same way you would for a decimal number, but you use a base of 2 instead of a base of 10.
  • Decimal [6,357]:
    • (6 * 10^3) + (3 * 10^2) + (5 * 10^1) + (7 * 10^0) = 6000 + 300 + 50 + 7 = 6357
  • Binary number [11]:
    • (1 * 2^3) + (0 * 2^2) + (1 * 2^1) + (1 * 2^0) = 8 + 0 + 2 + 1 = 11
  • You can see that in binary numbers, each bit holds the value of increasing powers of 2.
data types1
Data Types
  • Numeric
  • Text
  • Hypertext
  • Audiovisual
  • Physical
numeric
Numeric
  • Consists of numbers and decimal points.
  • Both arithmetic operations (+ - * /) and logical operations (and, or, if, not) are performed on numeric data.
  • Numbers can be used for calculations as well as sorted and compared to each other.
  • A common file extension for numeric data include:

.xls (spreadsheet)

slide17
Text
  • Can contain any combination of letters, numbers and special characters.
  • Sometimes textual data is known as alphanumeric data.
  • Text is organised into words, sentences and paragraphs.
  • Some common file extensions for text include:

.doc (document)

.txt (text)

.rtf (rich text format)

  • Essays, reports, letters, emails are examples of textual data.
hypertext
Hypertext
  • Text displayed on a computer or other electronic device with references (hyperlinks) to other text that the reader/user can immediately access, usually by a mouse click
  • Some file extensions for hypertext include:

.html

.htm

audiovisual
Audiovisual
  • Various forms of data that we can hear or see
  • Data takes the form of graphs, drawings, photographs, video sequences and sound.
audiovisual graphics
Audiovisual - graphics
  • There are two types of graphics
    • Bitmapped graphics
      • Each image is a pattern or map of tightly packed dots (ie bits)
      • Each dot [a pixel – picture element] has a separate memory position that is represented by a colour or shade of grey
      • when you enlarge a bitmapped graphic, youenlarge each pixel creating a staircase pattern called aliasing or “pixelated” e.g. photographs
      • Most images on your computer are composed of bitmaps
    • Vector graphics
      • Not made up of a grid of pixels
      • Allows continuous lines to be drawn comprised of paths which are defined by a start and end point
      • Graphics are stored as mathematical formulas
      • These graphics can be scaled to a large size and not lose any image quality
audiovisual graphics1
Audiovisual - graphics
  • Common bitmap file extensions are:

.bmp - bitmap

.jpeg- Joint Photographic Experts Group

.gif - Graphics Interchange Format

.tif - Tagged Image File

  • Common vector file extensions are:

.ai – Adobe Illustrator

.eps – Encapsulated PostScript file

.svg – Scalable Vector Graphics file

.drw – Drawing file

audiovisual audio
Audiovisual - audio
  • An electrical representation of sound which can be transmitted or reproduced
  • Common file extensions include:

.mp3

.wav

.midi

audiovisual video and animation
Audiovisual Video and Animation
  • Video
    • The technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion
  • Animation
    • The rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement.
  • Common file formats for video include: .mpg, .mov
  • Common file formats for animation include: .swf, .gif
physical
Physical
  • Captured from the environment.
    • Light, temperature and pressure
  • The temperature of a room may be controlled by a computer
    • A thermostat is set to sense the air temperature. When the temperature exceeds a specified level, a cooling system is turned on. The warmth of the air is used as physical data input into a thermostat to regulate room temperature.