History of Marine Science. Unit 2. The History of Voyaging. Travelling for a specific purpose, especially by sea First navigation was celestial - finding one’s position in reference to heavenly bodies. The Egyptians. 4000 B.C. organize commerce on the Nile.
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4000 B.C. organize commerce on the Nile
Circa 2300 B.C. established sea trade throughout the Indian Ocean
ca 1938 - 1756 B.C. built the Isthmus of Suez, a canal to navigate ships across land which operated until 775 A.D.
590 B.C. Sailed around Africa
A stone carving from the 1st century AD shows the kind of ship that the Phoenicians used on the Mediterranean Sea
ca 450 B.C. Herodotus published accurate map of Mediterranean region
336 B.C. Alexander the Great developed trade routes throughout the Mediterranean and expanded their empire
200 B.C. Eratosthenes
Chief librarian for the Library of Alexandria in Egypt
Housed scrolls copied by law off ships that harbored
Burning the library resulted in an incalculable loss of ancient works
(present day longitude and latitude was developed by Hipparchus in 120 BC)
ca 200 B.C Islamic and Arab Merchants
traded throughout the Mediterranean and Indian Oceans.
They are believed to have invented the lateen sail (triangular sail) important in early navigation.
900 A.D. The Vikings crossed the North Atlantic to colonize Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland
used the North Star to determine latitude
Exhumed Viking ship; Viking Ship Museum, Oslo, Norway.
Sailed to influence and impress their neighbors.
Sailing for Spain, sailed the Atlantic and “discovered” the America’s.
1497 Vasco de Gama
Sailing for Portugal, sailed around Africa from Portugal to India to establish trade routes.
Europeans searched for the Northwest passage through northern Canada to trade with Asia; explored the Arctic.
1519 - Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan
the 1st European expedition to circumnavigate the world.
237 men began the voyage; 18 returned.
Magellan actually died before the journey was finished, but his crew returned in 1522.
developed the first chronometer
Monument in Richmond, VA
1898 John Holland
invents 1st gas engine/battery powered submarine
bought by US government in 1900.
the world wars were the catalyst for US oceanographic research
Don Walsch man the US Trieste bathyscaphe (small submarine)
submersible to carry
1985-? JASONs (satellite oceanography monitors)
Uses altimeter to measure sea surface height
Allows us to look at global ocean circulation, improve climate forecasts and monitor events such as El Niño, hurricanes and sea-level rise (global warming)
– small underwater vehicles
– remotely operated vehicle
–lowered by a cable from a ship
– take sediment cores
Floating and Fixed platforms(FLIP – floating instrument platform)
-gather data like temperature, salinity, density, and weather patterns
– SEASAT: 1st satellite dedicated to ocean studies
Side scan sonar
– great for sunken ships
The ocean represents the Earth’s last frontier for exploration and the key to understanding the future of our planet.
The human race depends on the life and sustainability of the ocean for economic, biological, and environmental stability.
The world of aquatic science is ever reaching for new discoveries in this blue realm.