The Sky Group Matthew Barnes Jeremy Moeller Brian Raymaker Maria Roig PRODUCTION/OPERATIONS MANAGMENT
Today’s Topic The Product Layout A Facility Layout Concept
What is the Facility Layout Problem? • Concerned w/ arrangement of machines, cells, or departments. • Often computationally difficult. • A decision is both quantitative & qualitative.
Why is the Layout Problem Difficult? • It has geometric and combinational aspects. • Jig-saw puzzle. • Difficult picture • No picture • No shapes • Goal: Minimize material handling costs.
What a Facility Layout Needs to be Effective • Minimize material handling costs. • Utilize space efficiently & effectively. • Utilize labor efficiently & effectively. • Eliminate bottlenecks. • Eliminate wasted or redundant movement. • Incorporate safety & security measures.
The Product Layout • Product Layout =def. A facility layout that arranges activities in a line according to the sequence of operations that need to be performed to assemble a product, while minimizing material handling costs. • Also known as an Assembly Line.
History of the Product Layout • 1895 - Frederick Winslow Taylor. • Work should be broken into individual tasks. • Those tasks can be shortened or eliminated. • Frank Gilbreth - Time study techniques. • Work combined led to maximum efficiency in industrial work.
History Continued... • 1909 - Henry Ford • Boosted recognition for Taylor and Gilbreth’s ideas. • Increased productivity on his Model T by pulling the car through the plant at a constant speed while workers added accumulated parts. • Production time decreased from 12 hours and 8 minutes to 1 hour and 33 minutes.
History Continued… • In the 1920’s manufacturers moved away from assembly lines to gain flexibility in their products. • The Product Layout came back into style as a form called Flow Manufacturing emerged in the 1970’s. • The Product Layout is still popular today.
Product Layouts • Most appropriate for continuous operations. • Used for products with high volume and steady demand. • Machines perform a singular, specialized task. • Machines are organized consecutively.
Line Configuration • The flow of products is continuous along a line. • Linear pattern. • “L” pattern. • “U” shape. • Snake shape. • Shape determines workers flexibility.
Product Layout - Advantages • Stable rate of output. • Work-in-process inventory is low. • Total production time/unit is reduced. • Space is effectively utilized. • Narrow aisles. • Labor pool is large. • Single skilled.
Product Layout - Disadvantages • If one machine fails the whole process stops. • Changes in product design can render the layout obsolete. • Bottlenecks govern the speed. • Large support staff required. • High fixed costs.
Traditional Top priority: Line balancing. Inventory buffers. Planned by admin. staff. “L” shaped lines. Conveyor movement. New Focus Top priority: flexibility. Preventive maint. Shop supervisor designs and adjusts. “U” shaped lines. Stations are close together. Product Layouts - Now & Then
Designing Product Layouts • Main Objective: Arrange workers and machines in a line according to the operations that need to be performed. • It isn’t always that simple. • Line balancing. • Line balancing software: • COMSOAL - IBM • ASYBL - GE
Line Balancing • Equalizes amount of work at each station. • Constraints in Line Balancing. • Precedence Requirements • The order in which operations need to take place. • Cycle Time • Maximum time a product can be at a station. • A guess and check process.
Line Balancing - Example • Draw and label a precedence diagram. • Calculate the desired cycle time required for a line. • Calculate the theoretical minimum number of workstations. • Group elements into work stations recognizing cycle time & precedence. • Calculate efficiency of the line.
Questions • What is another name for the Product Layout? • What is the primary goal of the Product Layout? • What tool is used to to equalize a Product Layout?
HOMEWORK - Ouch! • Drag and Drop Exercises • 7.1a • 7.1b • 7.1c • Line Balancing Problem • Handout • See text pages 294-295 for an example.
THE END Feel free to e-mail me any further questions at firstname.lastname@example.org