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History of Health & Medical Milestones

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  1. History of Health & Medical Milestones

  2. The Early Beginnings: • Many illness and ailments were treated with plant sources. • Digitalis comes from the foxglove plant • Quinine comes from the bark of the cinchona tree. • Belladonna and Atropine are made from the poisonous nightshade plant. • Morphine is made from the opium poppy. The Ancient Times: • Hippocrates based his knowledge of anatomy and physiology on his observation of the human body. Hippocrates also wrote the standard of ethics; which is still the oath that Physicians take. • The Egyptians were the earliest people to keep accurate health records. • The Ancient Greeks were the first to study the causes of disease. • The Romans learned from the Greeks and developed sanitation systems, • and the Romans were the first to organize medical care

  3. The Dark Ages: • When the Roman Empire was conquered by the Huns, the study of medical science stopped, and for about 1,000 years medicine was only practiced by convents and monasteries. • Epidemic outbreaks of disease caused millions of deaths • The Bubonic Plague killed 60 million people • Small Pox, Diphtheria, Syphilis, and Tuberculosis were ramped The Renaissance Period: • The rebirth of learning and the study of medicine were responsible for many new developments. • The building of universities and medical schools • The acceptance of dissection of the body for the purpose of study • The development of the printing press and the publishing of books

  4. The Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: • Several scientists added new knowledge and discoveries. • Leonardo da Vinci studied and recorded the human body • William Harvey studied physiology and the circulation of blood • Gabriele Fallopius discovered the fallopian tubes in the female anatomy • Bartolommeo Eustachio discovered the tube leading from the ear to the throat (Eustachian Tube) • Antonie van Leeuwenhoek invented the microscope

  5. The Eighteenth Century: • Students attended lectures in the classroom and they observed patients at bedside, and when a patient died, they dissected the body to study the cause of death. • Rene Laennec invented the stethoscope • Joseph Priestley discovered the element of oxygen • Edward Jenner discovered a method of vaccination for small pox • Benjamin Franklin developed bi-focal glasses, and discovered that colds could be passed from person to person

  6. The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: • The advancement of organized medical science and the development of medical technology began to unfold. • IgnazSemmelweis identifies the cause of childhood fever (Puerperal Fever) • Louis Pasteur discovered that tiny microorganisms were everywhere • Joseph Lister developed antiseptics for surgery • Ernst von Bergmann developed Asepsis (sterile surgical procedures) • Robert Koch discovered many disease causing organisms • William Roentgen discovered X-rays • Paul Ehrlich discovered the effect of medicine on disease causing microorganisms • Gerhard Domagk discovered sulfonamide compounds

  7. DimitriIvanovski discovered that some organisms that caused disease were a virus, and they could not be seen with a microscope • Poliomyelitis, Rabies, Measles, Influenza, Chicken Pox, Herpes, Mumps, German Measles • Sigmund Freud discovered the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind and developed psychoanalysis • Alexander Fleming discovered that penicillin killed bacteria • Ernst Chain and Howard Florey develop penicillin and antibiotics • Jonas Salk discovered that the dead polio virus would cause immunity to poliomyelitis • Albert Sabin used the live polio virus to develop a more effective vaccine against poliomyelitis • The process of transplanting organs is further developed • The use of computers to diagnose medical conditions • The development of noninvasive techniques for surgery • The advancement of prenatal care for the fetus • The further development of the treatments for Cancers and other chronic diseases

  8. Complementary and Alternative Therapies: • Acupressure: pressure applied with the fingers, palms, thumbs, or elbows to specific pressure points on the body • Acupuncture: the insertion of very thin needles into specific points along the meridians in the body to stimulate and balance the flow of energy • Antioxidants: nutritional therapy that encourages the use of substances that prevent or inhibit oxidation and neutralize free radicals in the body • Aromatherapy: the use of selected fragrances to alter mood and restore thebody, mind, and spirit • Biofeedback: relaxation technique that uses monitoring devices to provide information about reaction to stress by showing heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, muscle tension, and skin temperature

  9. Herbal Medicine: • medicine derived from herbs, plant extracts, roots, stems, seeds, flowers, and leaves • Hydrotherapy: • use of water to massage and soaking in hot springs or tubs to relax the muscle tissue • Tai Chi: • ancient theory that states health is harmony with nature and the universe and a balanced state of yin (cold) and yang (heat) • Yoga: • Hindu discipline that uses concentration, body positions, andritual movements to maintain the balance and flow of energy

  10. 460BC: Birth of Hippocrates; the “Father of Medicine” • 129: Birth of Galen; accomplished Roman Medical Researcher • 1354: The Black Plague wipes out major populations of Europe • 1504: Gabrielle Fallopio invents the Linen Condom • 1536: Ambrose Pare develops the Cauterizing Technique • 1551: Gabrielle Fallopio discovers the Fallopian Tubes • 1590: Zacharias Janssen invents the Compound Microscope • 1593: Galileo Galilei invents the Water Thermometer • 1596: Sir John Harrington invents the 1st Water Closet or Toilet • 1608: Thomas Lippershey invents the Refracting Telescope • 1625: Jean-Babtiste Denys invents the process of Blood Transfusion • 1628: William Harvey discovers the Circulation of Blood in the Body • 1663: James Gregory invents the Reflecting Telescope • 1683: Antony van Leeuwenhoek discovers Bacteria • 1687: Sir Isaac Newton discovers the “Law of Gravity” • 1714: Gabriel Fahrenheit invents the Mercury Thermometer • 1728: Pierre Fauchard invents the 1st Dental Drill • 1742: Anders Celsius develops the “Celsius Scale” • 1752: Benjamin Franklin invents the Lightening Rod • 1753: James Lind discovers the cure for Scurvy

  11. 1761: Giovanni Morgagni performs the 1st Autopsy • 1775: Alexander Cummings invents the 1st Flush Toilet • 1784: Benjamin Franklin invents Bifocal Glasses • 1792:Stabler-Leadbeater Apothecary Shop opens in Alexandria, Virginia • 1798: Edward Jenner discovers the Small Pox Vaccine • 1805: Oliver Evans invents the Refrigerator • 1816: Rene Laennec invents the Stethoscope • 1818: James Blundell performs the 1st Blood Transfusion • 1829: Louis Braille develops the “Braaille System” for the Blind • 1832: Thomas Hodgkin identifies abnormal cells in the Lymphatic System as Cancer • 1842: Crawford Long uses Anesthesia to surgically remove a Tumor • 1844: Horace Wells uses Nitrous Oxide as an Anesthetic for Dentistry • 1846: William Morton performs the 1st operation using Ether for Anesthetic • 1847:IgnazSemmelweis identifies Hand Washing to prevent disease transmission • 1849: Elizabeth Blackwell is the first woman to earn a Medical Degree • 1851: Hermann von Helmholtz invents the Ophthalmoscope • 1853: Alexander Wood & Gabriel Pravaz invent the Hypodermic Syringe • 1854: John Snow discovers the Cholera Bacteria Florence Nightingale initiates nursing in hospitals • 1857: Joseph Cayetty invents Toilet Paper • 1860: Etienne-Jules Marey invents the Sphygmomanometer for Blood Pressure • 1864: Louis Pasteur invents Pasteurization Henri Dunant initiates the development of the “Red Cross” • 1865: Joseph Lister develops the “Antiseptic System” • 1866: Johann Gregor Mendel discovers Human Genes • 1867: Wilhelm Waldeyer identifies abnormal cells as Cancer

  12. 1867: Henri Nestle invents Baby Formula • 1868: Jean Martin Charcot discovers Multiple Sclerosis • 1876: Robert Koch discovers the Anthrax Bacteria • 1878: Robert Koch discovers the Tuberculosis Bacteria • 1880: British Perforated Paper Company introduces the Roll of Toilet Paper • 1881: Clara Barton initiates the American Red Cross • 1885: Carl Koller introduces the Local Anesthetic • 1889: William Stewart Halsted develops Rubber Gloves for Surgery • 1890: Emil Adolph von Behring develops the Diphtheria Vaccine • 1892: Elie Metchnikoff discovers White Blood Cells DimitriIvanotski discovers Viruses • 1895: Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovers the X-Ray • 1896: Paul Ehrlich develops Chemotherapy • 1897: Ronald Ross proves that Malaria was spread by Mosquitoes • 1898: August Bier develops the Spinal Anesthetic • 1898:Almroth Wright develops the Typhoid Vaccine • 1899: Felix Hoffman and Heinrich Dreser discover Aspirin • 1900: Walter Reed proves that Yellow Fever is spread by Mosquitoes • 1901: Karl Landsteiner discovers and names the Four Blood Groups; A, B, O, AB • 1902: Sir William MaddockBayliss discovers Hormones • 1903: Willem Einthoven invents the Electrocardiograph • 1905: Albert Einstein develops the “Theory of Relativity” • 1906: Eduard Zirm performs the 1st Successful Cornea Transplant • 1910: Paul Erich discovers the cure for Syphilis Marie Curie isolates Radium

  13. 1912:Casimir Funk develops the Vitamin • 1914: John Abel develops the Kidney Dialysis Machine • 1917: Sigmund Freud develops Psychoanalysis • 1918: Marie Stopes invents the Rubber Cap Diaphragm • 1921: Earle Dickson invents the Band-Aid for Johnson & Johnson • 1921: Frederick Banting and Charles Best develop Insulin for Diabetics • 1924: Hans Berger develops the Electroencephalogram (EEG) • 1928: Alexander Fleming discovers Penicillin • 1929: Philip Drinker develops the “Iron Lung Machine” for Polio patients • 1931: Ernest Ruska invents the Electron Microscope • 1932: William Kouwenhouen develops the first Cardiac Defibrillator • 1932: Gerhard Domagk discovers Sulfonamidochrysoidine (Prontosil) • 1937: Bernard Fantus starts the first Blood Bank at Cook County Hospital in Chicago • 1941: George Papanicolaou develops the “Pap Test” for Cervical Cancer • 1943: William Kolff develops the first Kidney Dialysis Machine • 1944: Alfred Blalock performs the first Open Heart Surgery • 1945: Ernst Chain and Howard Florey develop Penicillin • 1950: Gregory Pincus discovers the Birth Control Pill Marion Donovan invents the Disposable Diaper • 1952: Paul Zoll develops the first Cardiac Pacemaker Jonus Salk develops the first Polio Vaccine • 1953: James Watson and Francis Crick discover the structure of the DNA Molecule • 1954: Joseph Murray performs the first Kidney Transplant

  14. 1955: Jonus Salk develops the Polio Vaccine for ALL Three Strains • 1963: John Enders develops the Measles Vaccine • 1965: Frank Pantridge develops the first Portable Defibrillator • 1967: Christian Bernard performs the first Heart Transplant • 1968: GoedfryHoundsfield develops the CAT Scan • 1973: Henry Heimlich develops the “Heimlich Maneuver” for Choking • 1974:ChohHao Li discovers Endorphins in the Brain • 1980: Raymond Damadian builds first commercial MRI scanner • 1981: Baruch Blumberg and Irving Millman develop the Hepatitis B Vaccine • 1982: William DeVines implants the first Artificial Heart (Jarvik-7) • 1983: Don Francis and the CDC discover that AIDS is in Blood Luc Montaginar & the Pasteur Institute identify HIV; the virus that causes AIDS • 1985: Robert Gallo and the NIH develop the first test to diagnose HIV/AIDS • 1987: Ben Carson, and a 70-member medical team are the first to Separate Occipital Craniopagus Twins. • 1989: Henry Erlich discovers DNA Identification • 1990: David Ho develops Protease Inhibitors “AIDS Cocktails” for AIDS Treatment • 1997: Ian Wilmut clones the first animal from a human cell; Dolly the Sheep • 2005: Jean-Michel Dubernard performs the first Partial Face Transplant • 2006: Ian Frazer develops the HPV Vaccine • 2008: Laurent Lantieri performs the first Full Face Transplant Robert Lanza develops Artificial Stem Cells