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Structure of the Atom. SC Standards Covered. Standard PS-2.1 Compare the subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons) of an atom with regard to mass, location, and charge, and explain how these particles affect the properties of an atom (including identity, mass, volume, and reactivity).

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sc standards covered
SC Standards Covered
  • Standard PS-2.1 Compare the subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons) of an atom with regard to mass, location, and charge, and explain how these particles affect the properties of an atom (including identity, mass, volume, and reactivity).
  • Standard PS-2.4 Use the atomic number and the mass number to calculate the number of protons, neutrons, and/or electrons for a given isotope of an element.
scientific shorthand
Scientific Shorthand
  • Each element can be represented by a one, two, or three letter chemical symbol
  • Each symbol consists of one capital letter plus one or two lower case letters
atomic components
Atomic Components

Atom - smallest particle of an element which retains the properties of that element.

atomic theory
Atomic Theory
  • Atoms are building blocks of elements
  • Similar atoms in each element
  • Different from atoms of other elements
  • Two or more different atoms bond in simple ratios to form compounds
basic structure
Basic Structure
  • The center of the atom is called the nucleus.
  • Surrounding the nucleus is the electron cloud.
subatomic particles
Subatomic Particles

Particle Symbol Location Charge Mass

Electron

Space around the nucleus

1/1840

amu

e-1

-1

In the nucleus

Proton

p+1

+1

1 amu

In the nucleus

0

1 amu

Neutron

n0

quarks
Quarks
  • Quarks – particles that make up protons and neutrons
    • Three quarks make up a proton or neutron
fine points to the structure of the atom
Fine Points to the Structure of the Atom
  • All of the mass of an atom is located in the nucleus
  • All of the volume of the atom is taken up by the electron cloud
slide11

Atomic Number

Atomic number – counts the number of protons in an atom

- Used to identify the element

- Periodic Table arranged by it

Atoms are electrically neutral

(not charged)

# of protons = # of electrons

learning check
Learning Check

State the number of protons for atoms of each of the following:

A. Nitrogen

1) 5 protons 2) 7 protons 3) 14 protons

B. Sulfur

1) 32 protons 2) 16 protons 3) 6 protons

C. Barium

1) 137 protons 2) 81 protons 3) 56 protons

solution
Solution

State the number of protons for atoms of each of the following:

A. Nitrogen

2) 7 protons

B. Sulfur

2) 16 protons

C. Barium

3) 56 protons

mass number
Mass Number

Mass Number – Counts the number of protons and neutrons in an atom

Number of Neutrons =

Mass Number – Proton Number (atomic #)

isotopes
Isotopes

Isotopes - atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons

slide18

Notation of Isotopes

Potassium - 40

Mass number

40

K

19

Atomic number

learning check19
Learning Check

Naturally occurring carbon consists of three isotopes, 12C, 13C, and 14C. State the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of these carbon atoms.

12C 13C 14C

6 6 6

#P _______ _______ _______

#N _______ _______ _______

#E _______ _______ _______

slide20

Carbon - 12

Carbon - 13

Carbon - 14

slide21
Atomic mass - weighted average of all the isotopes of a particular element
  • This is the mass indicated on the periodic table.
  • This number will be closest to the most common isotope of the element.
learning check22
Learning Check

An atom of zinc has a mass number of 65.

A. Number of protons in the zinc atom

1) 30 2) 35 3) 65

B. Number of neutrons in the zinc atom

1) 30 2) 35 3) 65

C. What is the mass number of a zinc isotope

with 37 neutrons?

1) 37 2) 65 3) 67

solution23
Solution

An atom of zinc has a mass number of 65.

A. Number of protons in the zinc atom

1) 30

B. Number of neutrons in the zinc atom

2) 35

C. What is the mass number of a zinc isotope

with 37 neutrons?

3) 67

learning check24
Learning Check

Write the isotope (nuclear) notation for atoms with the following:

A. 8 p+, 8 n, 8 e- ___________

B. 17p+, 20n, 17e- ___________

C. 47p+, 60 n, 47 e- ___________

solution25
Solution

16O

A. 8 p+, 8 n, 8 e- 8

B. 17p+, 20n, 17e- 37Cl

17

C. 47p+, 60 n, 47 e- 107Ag

47