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Plate 50. Toxins. Toxins. Toxins : poisonous substances produced by organisms (microorganisms, in our case). Exotoxins. Exotoxins: produced within cytoplasm of bacteria and released into the surrounding environment Exo = “out” Produced by Gram-positive bacteria

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plate 50

Plate 50

Toxins

toxins
Toxins
  • Toxins: poisonous substances produced by organisms (microorganisms, in our case)
exotoxins
Exotoxins
  • Exotoxins: produced within cytoplasm of bacteria and released into the surrounding environment
    • Exo = “out”
    • Produced by Gram-positive bacteria
    • Toxins are soluble in body fluids
exotoxins1
Exotoxins
  • Released after bacteria cell is inside the body or in food (and consumed by host)
  • Spread through body by blood and damage organs
  • Effects of exotoxins:
    • Damage cell membranes of tissue
    • Interrupt metabolic function
    • Interfere with cellular functions
exotoxins enterotoxin
Exotoxins – Enterotoxin
  • Staphylococcus aureus produce enterotoxins that are absorbed by the cells that line the intestines
  • Entero= “intestine”
  • Symptoms:
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Abdominal cramps
    • Diarrhea
  • Ex: S. aureus can result in Toxic Shock Syndrome, commonly found in menstruating women who use tampons
staph infection
Staph Infection
  • Skin infections:
    • Pimples
    • Folliculitis
    • Impetigo
exotoxins neurotoxin
Exotoxins – Neurotoxin
  • Clostridium botulinum produce neurotoxins that affect the nervous system
  • Neuro = “nerve”
  • Prevents the release of acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter) at neuromuscular junctions
  • Results in paralysis, since nerve impulses cannot pass to muscles
exotoxins neurotoxin1
Exotoxins – Neurotoxin
  • Clostridium tetani produce a neurotoxin that affects nerve cells responsible for skeletal muscle contractions
  • Muscles remain constantly contracted and rigid
tetanus
Tetanus
  • “Lock-jaw” – muscle contraction in the face and neck
exotoxins cytotoxin
Exotoxins – Cytotoxin
  • Corynebacterium diphtheriae kill respiratory cells by interfering with protein synthesis
  • Dead respiratory cells and debris collect in mucus, block small air passageways, and make breathing difficult
  • Cyto = “cell”
diptheria
Diptheria
  • Note the large whitish swelling in the throat
endotoxins
Endotoxins
  • Endotoxins: made of components of bacterial cell wall
    • Endo = “in”
    • Produced by Gram-negative bacteria
    • Made of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
    • Released when the bacteria cell wall is broken down (through phagocytosis or antibiotics)
endotoxins1
Endotoxins
  • Unlike some exotoxins, endotoxins are not tissue specific – they affect a wide range of tissues (systemic)
  • Symptoms:
    • Dilate blood vessels (lower blood pressure)
    • Tissue failure due to lack of nutrition and oxygen
    • Fever
    • Muscular weakness
    • Low levels of white blood cells
    • Hemorrhaging of blood vessels