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Global food system (s) and health equity. Sustainability. Food Security. Health Equity. THINK, EAT & GROW GREEN GLOBALLY. Food Sovereignty. i n Canada and Ecuador . JERRY SPIEGEL BRENT MANSFIELD

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slide1

Global food system(s) and health equity

Sustainability

Food Security

Health Equity

THINK, EAT & GROW GREEN

GLOBALLY

Food Sovereignty

in Canada and Ecuador

JERRY SPIEGEL BRENT MANSFIELD

School of Population & Public Health Land & Food Systems; TEGS project

+ Liu Institute for Global Issues Co-Chair, Vancouver Food Policy CouncilUNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

jerry.spiegel@ubc.ca brentmansfield@gmail.com

FOOD FOR ALL: A Conference on Poverty and Global Food Security

messages

Messages

Food is fundamental to health and health equity – as is poverty

Food security & poverty must be viewed at a global scale - and not framed as individual attributes

To ensure security, food systems must respect sovereignty - and not be framed as a purely technical matter

so what is poverty

“We realized you couldn’t do health without doing something about hunger and poverty…”

  • PrabhuPingali, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
So…What is poverty?

Fundamentally, poverty is a denial of choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of basic capacity to participate effectively in society. …

It means…

  • not having enough to feed and clothe a family,
  • not having a school or clinic to go to,
  • not having the land on which to grow one’s food
  • …… or a job to earn one’s living,
  • not having access to credit.

It means insecurity, powerlessness and exclusion of individuals, households and communities. It means susceptibility to violence, and it often implies living in marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation.

- UN Statement, June 1998

… and what drives it?

VULNERABILITY

INEQUALITY

slide4

SOME

HEALTH FOR ALL BY THE YEAR 2000

RISKING DEATH TO GIVE LIFE

Maternal Mortality Ratio (1995)(per 100,000 live births)

VERY HIGH - 600 or more

HIGH - 300-599

MODERATE - 100-299

LOW - less than 100

No data

Source: WHO,UNICEF, UNFPA, Maternal Mortality in 1995: Estimates developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA. Geneva, 2001

so what does food security entail

So…What does food security entail?

What about the circumstances regarding

  • how food is grown?
  • how decisions are made?
  • how people are involved?

Is the problem of food insecurity just found in

improving access to food?

Scholarly articles on “Food” + “Health”

slide6

multi-scalar environmental, social context

1

occupational

exposures

health

impacts

2

“growing”

environmental change

3

political / economic regulatory context

agri-business,

marketing,

sales

“eating”

8

growing/ eating

threats to traditional

livelihoods, cultural

continuity

4

intake of contaminants

5

nutrition

6

7

Social determinants (agency, income, social capital)

linking global and local

manejo sustentable de riesgos de salud ambiental en ecuador

SUSTAINABLY MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS IN ECUADOR A community-based, intercultural and interdisciplinary initiative to promote human and ecosystem health.

MANEJO SUSTENTABLE DE RIESGOS DE SALUD AMBIENTAL EN ECUADOR :

UPCD TIER 1 UNIVERSITY PARTNERSHIP ($5 million, 6 years)

ecosystem approach to human health our common vision
ECOSYSTEM APPROACH TO HUMAN HEALTH- our common vision -
  • Transdisciplinarity
  • Equity
  • Participation
  • Sustainability

Source: Forget and Lebel, 2001

Socio-cultural

factors

Natural Resource

Management

Behavioural

factors

Identify opportunities for change

Knowledge

Understanding the

Determinants of

Ecosystem and

Human Health

Societal Response

To Health and Human

Development Needs

Global

change

IMPROVED

HEALTH

Development

of Policies

Economic

factors

Empowerment

Optimize interventions for change

Human Resource

Management

Environmental

factors

A process for building equitable solutions

key achievements
Key Achievements
  • 29 Community action research theses completed
    • International master’s at 3 Ecuadorian universities
    • 15 communities; impacts being evaluated
    • Benefits to graduates documented
  • 2nd Master’s initiated in 2009
    • Ecuadorian university led; UBC support
    • 18 students
    • Certificate program from modules
  • PhD program launched in 2009
    • Collective Health, Environment & Society
    • 19 students
    • Base for Andean Commission on Social Determination of Health
  • MOU with UBC / students
  • Workshops (e.g. mining, food, pesticides)
  • Certificate Programs
    • (Ecosystem approach to Antibiotic Resistance)
  • New Research partnerships
    • Dengue (3 years)
    • Food Systems & Health Equity (5 years)

Master’s at

U de Cuenca

PhD

at UASB

project example tucayta community pesticides water
Project Example : Tucayta community (pesticides/water)

Indigenous Agricultural Community in the province of Cañar, projects addressed:

  • Sustainable management of ‘paramo’ (upper highland) water sources;
  • Health and ecosystem impact of pesticide use; and
  • Evaluation of residual/waste water contamination and options for community response.

Impact:

-Reduced Pesticide exposure

-Improved water management

OUTCOME: strengthened leadership

slide11

IMPERIALISMO - CAPITALISMO

ACUMULACIÓN

PACHAMAMA

RECURSOS

CAPITALISTA

SUMAK KAWSAY – BUEN VIVIR

ENMANUEL CHIMBO, TUCAYTA, ECUADOR Jerry Spiegel, SPPH 581, Sept 2011

food systems health equity research program overview
Food Systems & Health Equity Research Program Overview

WHAT DO WE KNOW?

WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS OF FOOD SECURITY AND SOVEREIGNTY FOR:

Consequences for growers & communities from global pressures?

Does commodification of food alter cultural vitality?

How can negative pressures on healthy food choices & practices be countered ?

HOW IS KNOWLEDGE APPLIED?

food systems health equity research program overview1
Food Systems & Health Equity Research Program Overview

2a

4a

3a

2b

4b

3b

1

3

4

2

5

5 year research program on health equity funded by CIHR – one of 10 funded programs

think eatgreen@school
Think&EatGreen@School
  • Vancouver-based 5 year community based action research project (2010-2015)
  • Partnership of academic researchers from UBC , Vancouver School Board, Vancouver Coastal Health, Vancouver Food Policy Council, non-profit food and environmental organizations , SFU & Ryerson University
  • Funded by a Strategic Grant of the Environment of Social Sciences & Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRCC) Community University Research Alliances (CURA) program
think eatgreen@school1
Think&EatGreen@School
  • Project Objectives
    • Short term: To engage students in the learning through the food cycle (growing, preparing, sharing food and managing food waste) at school
    • Intermediate term: To promote the development of a healthy, sustainable food school food system in Vancouver
    • Long term: To contribute to enhance regional food security, food system sustainability and institutional adaptations to climate change
think eatgreen@school2
Think&EatGreen@School

Activities

  • Focused work in 14 Vancouver schools (but involved through university students in 30) through grants
  • Forms of Engagements with School Food System
    • UBC student involvement
      • 400 UBC undergraduate each year and graduate students
      • 6 UBC courses & one youth internship
    • Professional development for teachers and staff
      • 3-day Summer Institute
      • On-going workshops
    • Policy and Board-level Support
      • VSB Sustainability Framework – Food Action Plan
      • VSB School Food Garden Policy
      • Procurement
      • Etc.
closing observations

Closing observations

Food is fundamental to health and health equity – as is poverty

Food security & poverty must be viewed at a global scale - and not framed as individual attributes

To ensure security, food systems must respect sovereignty - and not framed as purely technical matters

Food sovereignty …..

taking control over food-producing resources, markets and agricultural policy.

-Wittman et al, Food Sovereignty in Canada (November 2011)