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Global Positioning System Modernization. CGSIC International Subcommittee Meeting s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s. 5 December, 2002. Overview. Background Constellation Status/Performance Standard Modernization Program The Way Ahead. GPS Background.

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global positioning system modernization

Global Positioning SystemModernization

CGSIC

International Subcommittee Meeting

s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s

5 December, 2002

overview
Overview
  • Background
  • Constellation Status/Performance

Standard

  • Modernization Program
  • The Way Ahead
gps background
GPS Background
  • Active program for over 25 years
    • Created from separate programs in 1973
    • Developmental satellites began launch in 1978
  • Operational satellites began launch in 1989
    • Initial Operational Capability - 1993
    • Full Operational Capability –1995
  • Open civil navigation service
    • Signal specification available to industry and all

users, both US and International

    • Free of direct user fees
gps satellites
GPS Satellites
  • Block II/IIA
  • All have been launched
  • Rockwell (now Boeing)
  • First launch Feb 1989
  • 21 operational
  • Mean Mission Duration
  • (MMD) 9.6/10.23 yrs
  • Block IIR/IIR-M
  • In production
  • Lockheed/Martin
  • 21 procured
  • 6 operational
  • 1 destroyed on launch
  • MMD 10.62/8.57 yrs
  • Block IIF
  • In development
  • Boeing
  • 6 already procured
  • Options for 6 more
  • MMD 11.35 yrs
us policy goals
US Policy Goals
  • Encourage acceptance of GPS into peaceful civil, commercial and scientific applications
  • Promote safety and efficiency in transportation
  • Encourage private investment in/use of GPS
  • Strengthen and maintain national security
  • Promote international cooperation in using GPS for peaceful purposes
us policy principles
US Policy Principles
  • No direct user fees
  • Open market competition for user equipment
  • Equal access for applications development and value added services
  • Common use of GPS time, geodesy, and signal structure standards
  • Interoperability of future systems with GPS
  • Recognition of security issues and protecting against misuse
  • Protect radionavigation spectrum from disruption and interference
gps civil applications
GPS Civil Applications
  • Enabling Technology
    • Unlimited growth potential
    • $16 Billion industry worldwide by year 2003
      • Japan projected to have 44% of customer market share
  • Expanding Use in Transportation Safety
    • Aviation, Maritime, Railroad, Highway, etc
    • Potential to reduce land-based navigation systems
  • Wide Range of Other Civil Uses
    • Telecommunications, Surveying, Law Enforcement, Emergency Response, Agriculture, Mining, etc.
    • Distress Alerting Satellite System (DASS), civil component of Global Personnel Recovery System
overview1
Overview
  • Background
  • Constellation Status/Performance

Standard

  • Modernization Program
  • The Way Ahead
slide9

GPS Constellation Status

27 Operating Satellites

(to ensure 24)

  • 21 Block II/IIA satellites operational
  • 6 Block IIR satellites operational
    • 14 of 21 Block IIR satellites available
    • Modernizing up to 8 Block IIR satellites
    • Last launch: 31 Jan 01
  • Next Launch: On hold
    • Launch vehicle issues
  • Continuously assessing constellation health to determine launch need
gps constellation age
GPS Constellation Age

Block IIR MMD = 12.67

Block IIR Predicted MMD

Block IIA Predicted MMD

Block IIA MMD =10.23

Block II MMD = 9.6

Block II Predicted MMD

gps sps performance standard
GPS SPS Performance Standard
  • Defines the levels of performance the U.S. Government commits to provide to domestic and international civil GPS users
  • Not a requirements document
  • Current edition published October 2001
    • Updated performance as a result of discontinuing Selective Availability
  • Available on US Coast Guard Navigation Center website
    • http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/

A Commitment of Service

overview2
Overview
  • Background
  • Constellation Status/Performance

Standard

  • ModernizationProgram
  • The Way Ahead
gps modernization
GPS Modernization

Increasing System Capabilities

Increasing Defense/Civil Benefit

NAVWAR Capable

Full Civil Rqmts

Add’l Capabilities

New Civil Signal – L5

L2C on L2

M-Code (Earth)

Basic GPS

SA Set

to 0

GPS III

  • GPS-III:
  • Navigation Surety
  • Increased Accuracy
  • Assured Availability
  • Controlled Integrity
  • System Survivability
  • Other Transformational needs
  • Nav-related Messaging
  • Navigation Operations
  • Adjunct to BFT

GPS IIR-M, IIF

GPS IIA/IIR

  • IIR-M: Improved on all IIA capabilities and added
  • 2nd Civil Signal on L2
  • New L1 & L2 M-Code
  • IIF: IIR-M capability and:
  • Add 3rd Civil Signal on L5
  • Standard Service (~100 m)
  • Precise Service (~16 m)
  • Two Nav frequencies
  • L1: Civil (C/A) & Precise
  • code, Navigation
  • L-2: P-code Nav

Flex Power upgrade adds ability to increase power on both P and M code signals to defeat low level enemy jamming

slide15

Civil GPS Modernization

  • Setting SA to zero considered first step
  • Civil users currently limited to one GPS signal
    • C/A code at L1 frequency (1575.42 MHz)
    • Low power signal, not intended for precision nav
    • C/A = “Coarse Acquisition”; P = “Precise”
  • Adding a second civil signal
    • C/A-type code at L2 frequency (1227.60 MHz)
    • Low power signal, not intended for precision nav
  • Adding a third civil signal
    • P-type codes at L5 frequency (1176.45 MHz)
    • Higher power signal, intended for precision nav
second civil signal l2c
Second Civil Signal (L2C)
  • More robust civil signal service
    • Civil users currently only have codeless/semi-codeless access to P(Y) on L2
  • Increased accuracy
    • Coded dual-frequency ionospheric corrections

at the receiver

  • Advanced signal structure
    • Working Group defined signal characteristics
    • Better cross-correlation properties than C/A
    • Data-free component for robust tracking
    • Designated as primary L2 civil code versus C/A

Begin Launch in 2004; Projected for Full Capability in 2012

third civil signal l5
Third Civil Signal (L5)
  • Improved signal structure for enhanced performance
    • ~ 6 dB higher power relative to L1
    • Broadcast over the full registered 24 MHz band
  • Spectrum allocated for aeronautical radionavigation services (ARNS) (960 – 1215 MHz)
    • Co-primary allocation for RNSS received at the last World Radio Conference (1164 – 1215 MHz)
  • DME compatibility achieved by frequency reallocation, if required
  • L5 signal definition
    • RTCA SC 159, WG #1, developed L5 Specification
    • GPS JPO originated/coordinated ICD-GPS-705

Begin Launch in 2005; Projected Full Capability in 2015

civil benefits of gps modernization
Civil Benefits of GPS Modernization
  • More robust GPS service
    • Reduces vulnerability to unintentional interference
    • Unlikely to simultaneously affect L1, L2 and L5
  • Worldwide dual frequency for en-route navigation and precision approach
    • Dual Frequency (L1, L5) allows ionospheric corrections in avionics onboard the aircraft
    • Fewer reference stations may be needed for space-based augmentation systems (e.g. WAAS)
  • Centimeter-level accuracy for scientific & survey applications
overview3
Overview
  • Background
  • Constellation Status/Performance

Standard

  • Modernization Program
  • The Way Ahead
the way ahead cont d
The Way Ahead (cont’d)
  • Future of global satellite navigation services is bright
  • Compatibility/interoperability is critical between GPS and future systems
    • European Galileo
    • Japanese Quasi-Zenith

Seamless, global interoperability of future

systems with GPS is in best interest of all

navigation users

summary
Summary
  • Stable, consistent GPS policy and service
  • Expanding use in transportation safety
  • GPS Modernization is a multiple step process
    • Second civil signal (L2C) beginning in 2004
    • Third civil signal (L5) beginning in 2005
    • GPS III addressing future dual-use requirements
  • Continuing international outreach to be responsive to global user needs
    • Compatibility/interoperability with other future systems is critical
  • Future GPS performance will dramatically improve as a result of modernization
global positioning system modernization1

Global Positioning SystemModernization

GPS Symposium

Tokyo, Japan

November 12, 2002

s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s

Michael Shaw

U.S. Department of Transportation

gps augmentations
GPS Augmentations
  • Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)
    • Enroute thru near precision approach
    • Signal in space currently available
      • Use at your own risk until operational (2003)
    • Commissioning for aviation use by late 2003
    • Allows reduction in ground-based nav aids
  • Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS)
    • Terminal through CAT III Precision Approach
    • Research and development program
gps augmentations cont d
GPS Augmentations(cont’d)
  • Maritime Differential GPS (MDGPS) System
    • Accuracy better than 10 meters
    • Currently 40 nations implementing Maritime DGPS
  • Nationwide Differential GPS (NDGPS) System
    • Expanding MDGPS to cover entire U.S.
    • Positive Train Control for railroads
    • Intelligent Transportation Systems for highway use
    • 23 stations currently operating
    • Full operational capability by end of 2007

MDGPS and NDGPS are one operating

system covering the US coast to coast

gps satellite status

A

B

C

D

E

F

SVN 54

SVN 43

SVN 39

SVN 41

SVN 34

SVN 36

SVN 33

SVN 51

SVN

1

SVN 46

SVN 25

2

SVN 23

SVN 38

SVN 21

SVN 40

SVN 44

3

SVN 31

SVN 30

SVN 27

SVN 32

SVN 35

4

5

g

y

SVN 22

SVN 13

SVN 37

SVN 26

SVN 15

SVN 24

SVN 29

SVN 17

LEGEND

BUS

NAV

GPS Satellite Status

y

g

g

y

g

y

g

g

y

g

g

g

g

y

g

y

g

y

g

y

r

y

g

y

g

g

g

g

g

g

g

y

y

g

y

g

y

y

g

g

g

g

g

g

g

g

y

y

g

y

y

y

y

y

y

Bottom Line

16 vehicles are “yellow” (i.e. single string)

9 vehicles are yellow due to bus failures

13 vehicles are yellow due to nav failures

constellation summary
Constellation Summary
  • Age Summary
    • 7 satellites past updated mean mission duration
  • Health Summary
    • 13 Satellites one component away from navigation mission failure
    • 9 satellites one component away from

bus failure

Despite age and component issues,

all satellites are providing a healthy nav signal

key gps iii goals for civil signals
Key GPS III Goals for Civil Signals
  • Significant increase in system accuracy
  • Assured and improved level of unaugmented integrity
  • Improved availability of accuracy with integrity
  • Backward compatibility with existing receivers
  • IOC for L5 (in combination with IIF satellites)
  • Smooth transition from GPS Block II to

Block III

  • Flexibility to respond to evolving requirements

with limited programmatic impacts

gps iii proposed accuracy
GPS III Proposed Accuracy

Draft Systems Specification

Threshold

Objective

Accuracy (95%)

2.5 m

0.5 m

Horizontal

Vertical

1.1 m

4.5 m

Timing

5.7 nsec

1.3 nsec

  • Includes the effects of receivers
    • Threshold is for low-cost/low-performance receiver
    • Objective is for high-cost/high-performance receiver