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Zoology. Standard 2: Invertebrates. List 5 characteristics of members of the Kingdom Animalia. Characteristics of Animals. Eukaryotes Multicellularity Heterotrophy Sexual reproduction Mobility -No cell wall Diploidy Specialized tissues Blastula formation. Zoo Agenda 04/08.

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zoology

Zoology

Standard 2: Invertebrates

characteristics of animals
Characteristics of Animals
  • Eukaryotes
  • Multicellularity
  • Heterotrophy
  • Sexual reproduction
  • Mobility -No cell wall
  • Diploidy
  • Specialized tissues
  • Blastula formation
zoo agenda 04 08
Zoo Agenda 04/08
  • Pre -Standard 2: Invertebrates
  • More Animal Characteristics
    • Graphic Organizer p.17
  • Work with It! pp.18-20
eukaryotes
Eukaryotes
  • Cells with a nucleus
  • Membrane-bound organelles
multicellarity
Multicellarity
  • More than one cell
  • Gives rise to different body plans
    • Asymmetrical
    • Radial
    • Bilateral
    • Clip
asymmetrical
Asymmetrical
  • No fixed arrangement of body parts
  • Lack cephalization (no head!)
  • No symmetry exists
radial symmetry
Radial Symmetry
  • How many ways can a pizza be cut into two equal parts?
  • Infinite number of ways as long as the cut goes through the center of the pizza
bilateral symmetry
Bilateral Symmetry
  • How many ways can a chair be cut in half?
  • Only one way; left and right halves that mirror each other
mobility
Mobility
  • No cell wall allows for mobility of cells and organism
diploidy
Diploidy
  • 2n
  • Two sets of chromosomes
  • One from each parent (sexual reproduction)
sexual fertilization
Sexual Fertilization
  • Egg + Sperm = Embryo
  • External
    • Outside body, higher mortality, large # gametes (egg and sperm)
    • Example: Fish, Amphibians, Insects
  • Internal
    • Inside body, lower mortality, small # gametes
    • Examples: Reptiles, Birds, Mammals
blastula formation
Blastula Formation
  • Development of the embryo
  • Produces primary tissue layers
    • Endoderm
    • Mesoderm
    • Ectoderm
    • Clip
tissues
Tissues
  • Cells organized into specialized tissues
  • Clip
slide16
Heterotrophy

Multicelluar

Diploidy

Blastula Formation

Mobility

Tissues

animal concept map
Animal Concept Map

Mobitiy

Tissue

Sexual Reproduction

Primary Tissue Layers

Body Plan

External

Bilateral

Symmetry

Radial Symmetry

work with it
Work with It!

Complete pp.18-20.

warm up 04 09
Warm-up 04/09
  • What does Invertebrate mean?
  • List as many different types of Invertebrates as you can.
  • Circle the animal in your list you think is “The First” animal evolutionarily?
invertebrates
Invertebrates
  • Invertebrates are animals that do not have a backbone.
  • Invertebrates are cold-blooded.
  • Eight Major Phylums
agenda 04 09
Agenda 04/09

Shape of Life :“Origins”

Notes

the shape of life
The Shape of Life
  • What was the FIRST animal?
  • How can we find this out and prove it?
  • The Shape of Life “Origins”
    • Read over questions
    • Answer questions while watching Origins.
eight major phyla
Eight Major Phyla
  • Porifera: Sponges
  • Cnidaria: Jellyfish, Hydra, Anemone, Coral
  • Platyhelminthes: Flatworms
  • Nemotoda: Roundworms
  • Arthropoda: Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, Millipedes, Centepedes
  • Mollusca: Clams, snails, Slugs, Nautilus, Octopus
  • Annelida:Segmented worms, leeches
  • Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins
warm up 04 10
Warm-up 04/10
  • What are the 3 types of symmetry?
  • What type of symmetry to sponges have?
  • Asymmetry
  • Bilateral
  • Radial
agenda 04 10
Agenda 04/10
  • Finish The Shape of Life “Origins”
  • Porifera Notes
  • Phylum Cnidaria
    • Cnidarians Spelling bee
    • Notes
slide28
Phylum Porifera:Sponges
  • Multicellular Eukaryotes
  • Heterotrophic, filter feeders
  • No cell wall, but sessile
  • Have specialized cells
  • Mostly marine, but include some freshwater inhabitants; usually found attached to the substrate in shallow or deep water.
sponge specialized cells
Sponge Specialized Cells
  • Amoebocytes
  • Spicules
  • Choanocytes
slide30
Body layers
  • Outer layer of flattened cells
  • Inner lining containing flagellated cells - draw water through pores, also filter food particles from water
  • Middle layer is a gelatinous material and contains spicules
slide31
Sponge Reproduction
  • Most are hermaphroditic
  • Sperm leaves a sponge via osculum, and enters by the currents generated from the choanocytes.
  • Fertilized eggs develop into free-swimming larvae
  • Sponges can reproduce asexually by fragmentation
  • Many of the freshwater sponges can produce asexually
slide32
Sponge Skeleton
  • Mesohyl- middle layer has a skeleton composed of tiny pointed structures made of silica or calcium carbonate called spicules.
  • Some sponges have skeletons of spongin fibers made of collagenous material; found in many of the commercial sponges
slide33
Sponge Taxonomy
  • Class Calcarea
  • Calcareous Sponges
  • Sponges with calcium carbonate spicules only.
  • Spicules are straight or have 3-4 rays
  • These sponges diversity is greatest in the tropics, predominantly in shallow waters
slide34
Class Hexactinellida
  • Glass Sponges
  • Glass sponges
  • Characterized by siliceous (silica) spicules consisting of six rays intersecting at right angles
slide35
Class Demospongiae
  • Demosponges
  • More than 90 % of the 5,000 known living sponge species are demosponges.
  • Skeletons are spongin fibers and/or siliceous spicules
  • Filter Feeders

Yellow sponge growing on a wall

on a Caribbean reef.

porifera links
Porifera Links
  • http://www.occc.edu/biologylabs/Documents/Zoology/Zoology_Tutorials.htm
  • www.biology.iastate.edu/.../%20Porifindx.htm
  • http://www.bumblebee.org/invertebrates/Porifera.htm
  • www.discoverlife.org/nh/tx/Porifera/
  • http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Porifera.html
if time
If time……
  • Intro to Phylum Cnidaria
    • Cnidarians Spelling bee
    • Slides
    • Notes
    • Classification Activity
eight major phyla1
Eight Major Phyla
  • Porifera: Sponges
  • Cnidaria: Jellyfish, Hydra, Anemone, Coral
  • Platyhelminthes: Flatworms
  • Nemotoda: Roundworms
  • Arthropoda: Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, Millipedes, Centepedes
  • Mollusca: Clams, snails, Slugs, Nautilus, Octopus
  • Annelida:Segmented worms, leeches
  • Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins
characteristics of cnidarians
Characteristics of Cnidarians
  • Radial symmetry
  • 2 Tissue Layers
    • Inner (Gastrodermis) and Outer (Ectodermis)
  • Nematocysts- located in cells called Cnidocytes, used for defense or feeding
  • Two Life forms: medusa and polyp
2 tissue layers
2 Tissue Layers
  • Gastrodermis(endoderm) Inner layer
  • Ectoderm- Outer layer
  • Mesoglea- Middle material
zoo warm up 04 11
Zoo Warm-up 04/11
  • What are 3 key characteristics of the Phylum Porifera?
    • Asymmetrical
    • Filter Feeders
    • Specialized Cells
    • Hermaphrodites
    • Classified according to spicule composition
agenda 04 11
Agenda 04/11
  • Phylum Cnidaria
    • Finish Notes
    • Classification Activity
  • Shape of Life “On the Move”
eight major phyla2
Eight Major Phyla
  • Porifera: Sponges
  • Cnidaria: Jellyfish, Hydra, Anemone, Coral
  • Platyhelminthes: Flatworms
  • Nemotoda: Roundworms
  • Arthropoda: Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, Millipedes, Centepedes
  • Mollusca: Clams, snails, Slugs, Nautilus, Octopus
  • Annelida:Segmented worms, leeches
  • Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins
life functions of cnidarians
Life Functions of Cnidarians
  • Movement and Response
    • Nerve Cells- nerve net surrounds whole body
    • Sensory Cells- used to sense environment
    • Muscle-like cells- longitudinal and circular aid in movement
life functions of cnidarians1
Life Functions of Cnidarians
  • Reproduction/life cycle
    • Can be sexual or asexual (mostly sexual)
    • Alternate generations between medusa and polyp form
    • Polyp develops through budding or from a free-swimming larva
    • Medusa formed by budding from a polyp body wall
life functions of cnidarians2
Life Functions of Cnidarians
  • Feeding
    • Use cnidocytes to stun or kill prey
    • Can contract tentacles to bring to mouth
    • Digestion occurs in gastrovascular cavity
classes of cnidarians you try
Classes of Cnidarians YOU TRY!
  • Class Hydrozoa- Hydra
  • Class Scyphozoa-Jellyfish
  • Class Cubozoa- Box Jelly
  • Class Anthozoa- Anemone or Coral
class hydrozoa
Class Hydrozoa
  • Mostly marine
  • This is the only class with freshwater members!
  • Alternate generations
  • Mostly colonial polyps
  • Only have cnidocytes in epidermis
slide57
Gastrozooid

Gonozooid

hydra
Hydra
  • Freshwater
  • Polyp only, no medusa
  • Young “buds” from parent until ready to survive on its own, then it drops off
physalia
Physalia
  • Portuguese Man-of-War
  • Colonial siphonophore
  • Does not swim, float moved by water and wind
  • Long tentacles contain cnidocytes and kill prey.
class scyphozoa
Class Scyphozoa
  • “True Jellyfish” – polyp form reduced or absent
  • All marine
  • Cnidocytes in gastrodermis and epidermis
  • Gametes form in gastrodermis
class cubozoa
Class Cubozoa
  • Medusa is cuboidal
  • Tentacles hang from corners
  • Polyps reduced or absent
  • Ex. Sea wasp
class anthozoa
Class Anthozoa
  • No medusae, polyp only
  • Mouth has a pharynx
  • Sexual and asexual reproduction
links
Links
  • http://www.oceanicresearch.org/education/wonders/cnidarian.html
  • Cnidarians Spelling bee
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