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WHAT IS MILK ?. Prof. Romziah Sidik, Ph.D. Drh. Department of Animal Husbandry Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. WHAT IS MILK ?. MILK IS A COMPLEX NUTRITIOUS PRODUCTS THAT CONTAINS MORE THAN 100 SUBSTANCES THAT ARE EITHER SOLUTION, SUSPENSION OR EMULTION IN WATER. MILK COMPOSITION.

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what is milk

WHAT IS MILK ?

Prof. Romziah Sidik, Ph.D. Drh.

Department of Animal Husbandry

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

what is milk1

WHAT IS MILK ?

MILK IS A COMPLEX NUTRITIOUS PRODUCTS THAT CONTAINS MORE THAN 100 SUBSTANCES THAT ARE EITHER SOLUTION, SUSPENSION OR EMULTION IN WATER

milk composition
MILK COMPOSITION
  • CASEIN : THE MAYOR PROTEIN OF MILK , IT’S A COLLOIDAL SUSPENSION FORM.
  • THE FAT & FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS IN THE MILK ARE IN THE FORM OF AN EMULSION, THAT IS SUSPENSION OF SMALL LIQUID GLOBULES THAT DO NOT MIX WITH THE WATER IN MILK.
  • LACTOSE (MILK SUGAR) SOME PROTEIN (WHEY PROTEIN), MINERAL SALTS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES ARE SOLUBLE, THAT IS, THEY ARE ENTIRELY DISSOLVED IN THE WATER IN MILK.
factors affecting milk compositions
FACTORS AFFECTING MILK COMPOSITIONS
  • BREED OF COW
  • GENETIC
  • STAGE OF LACTATION
  • FEED INTAKE & QUALITY
mammary gland structure
MAMMARY GLAND STRUCTURE
  • SUPPORT SYSTEM : a set of ligaments and connective tissue maintain the udder close to the body wall.
  • SECRETORY & DUCTUS SYSTEM : The udder is known as an exocrine gland because milk is sybthesized in specializrd cell grouped in alveoli, and than excreted outside the body through a duct system that fubctions like the tribuataries of river.
  • BLOOD SUPPLY & CAPILLARY STRUCTURES: milk production demands a lot of nutrients that are brought to the udder by the blood. To produce 1 kg milk, 400 -500 kg of blood must pass trough the udder. In addition, the blood carries hormones that control udder development, milk sybthesis & regeneration of the secretory cells between lactations (and or dry period).
mammary gland structure1
MAMMARY GLAND STRUCTURE
  • LYMPH SYSTEM : lymph is a clear fluid that comes from tissues highly irrigated by blood. Lymph helps to balance the fluid flowing in & out of the udder & helps to combat infections.
  • INNERVATION OF THE UDDER : nerve receptors on the surface of udder are sensitive to touch & temperature. During the preparation of the udder for milking these nerves are triggered & innitiate the “Milk Let Down” Hormones & the nervous system are also involved in the regulation of blood flow to the udder
  • SUPPORT SYSTEM : in modern dairy cows, the udder may weight more than 50 kg, because of the large ammont secretory tissue & milk that accumulates between milking.
principles of milking
PRINCIPLES OF MILKING
  • Milking is a team effort between the cow, the machine & the operator (or the calf)
milking
MILKING :
  • Milking is the act of collecting milk from a cow involves much more than a mechanical extraction.
  • For milking to be rapid & complete, the cow must received the proper signals from her environment.
milk ejection reflex mer
MILK EJECTION REFLEX (MER)
  • MER is triggered, the milk is squeezed out of the alveoli by the myoepithelial (muscular) cells & forced into the duct system.
  • The action of the mouth of a calf, the hand of an operator or the claw of a machine can collect the milk that has drained into the gland & teat canal.
milk let down
MILK LET DOWN
  • Activation of nerves whose impulses are interpreted by the brain (hypothalamus) to signal the cow that milking is imminent.
  • One or combinations stimuli may innitiate the milk ejection reflex (physical touch of suckling calf or that of an operator cleaning the teats/with sensitive to touch & temperature, the sight of a calf, the sound of milking machine.
process of let down milk
PROCESS OF LET DOWN MILK
  • STIMULI THE BRAIN SEND SIGNAL TO THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND RELEASE H. OXYTOCIN INTO THE BLOOD STREAM.
  • THE BLOOD TRANSPORTS OXYTOCIN TO THE UDDER CONTRACTION OF MYOEPHYTHEL CELLS SURROUNDING THE MILK FILLED ALVEOLI (20 -60 SECOND)
  • THE SQUEEZING ACTION INCREASES THE INTRAMAMMARY PRESSURE & FORCES THE MILK TROUGH THE DUCTS TO THE GLAND & TEAT CISTERN.
  • THE ACTION OF OXYTOCIN ONLY LASTS FOR SIX TO EIGHT MINUTES, BECAUSE ITS CONCENTRATION IN THE BLOOD DECREASES RAPIDLY.
inhibition of milk let down
INHIBITION OF MILK LET DOWN
  • INADEQUATE UDDER PREPARATION
  • DELAYED ATTACHMENT OF TEATCUPS FOR MINUTE AFTER PREPARING THE UDDER
  • UNUSUAL CIRCUMSTANCES, THAT LEAD TO PAIN (BEING HIT) OF FEAR
  • FAILURE OF THE MILKING EQUIPMENT TO OPERATE PROPERLY
milking systems
MILKING SYSTEMS
  • BY SUCKLING CALF (USES VACUUM)
  • HAND MILKING (USES PRESSURE)
  • MACHINE MILKING (USES VACUUM )
milking machine
MILKING MACHINE
  • TEATCUP
  • PULSATION CHAMBER
  • VACUUM PUMP
  • MILK GLASS CONTAINER
milking interval
MILKING INTERVAL :
  • A TWICE DAILY (@ 12 hours)
  • IN THE EARLY MORNING & IN THE EVENING
analisis usaha peternakan sapi perah
ANALISIS USAHA PETERNAKAN SAPI PERAH
  • PERHITUNGAN TITIK IMPAS/BREAK EVEN POINT
  • BIAYA TETAP (FIXED COST)
  • BIAYA VARIABEL (VARIABEL COST)
  • PENJUALAN
titik impas
TITIK IMPAS :
  • POSISI USAHA TIDAK UNTUNG & TIDAK RUGI
  • RUMUS :
  • BEP = BIAYA TETAP
  • 1 – B.VARIABEL
  • PENJUALAN