DEFINITION OF A VERBAL • A verbal is a word that is formed from a verb and that acts as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.
TYPES OF VERBALS • There are three kinds of verbals: • gerunds • infinitives • participles
GERUNDS • A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and acts as a noun.
GERUNDS • Exercising is the best thing you can do for yourself. • Don enjoys painting. • You can become a pro by practicing.
Identify the gerund in each of the following sentences. • Write it on your white board. • Hold it up so I can see it.
GERUNDS • Like nouns, gerunds may be: • subjects • predicate nouns • direct objects • indirect objects • objects of prepositions
GERUND AS A SUBJECT • When a gerund is used as a subject it is the word that tells whom or what the sentence is about. • It is usually located at the beginning of the sentence.
GERUND AS A SUBJECT • Jogging has become a very popular activity. • Whispering is not polite.
GERUND AS A PREDICATE NOUN • When a gerund is used as a predicate noun, it follows a linking verb.
GERUND AS A PREDICATE NOUN • Some common linking verbs include: • am -is -are • was -were -be • being -been -appear • become -feel -grow • look -smell -sound
GERUND AS A PREDICATE NOUN • My favorite hobby is skiing. • One sacred responsibility is voting.
GERUND AS A DIRECT OBJECT • When a gerund acts as a direct object, it follows an action verb and answers the question what or who about the verb.
GERUND AS A DIRECT OBJECT • Sarah likes skating. • Whenever I go to a swim meet, I enjoy the diving most.
GERUND AS AN OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION • When a gerund acts as an object of a preposition, it follows a preposition.
GERUND AS AN OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION • Some common prepositions include: • about -at -before • beside -by -between • for -in -like • of -on -over • through -to -with
GERUND AS AN OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION • You can become a pro by practicing. • Susan was soon bored by reading.
S, PN, DO, or OP • Wrestling is a difficult sport to learn. • subject
S, PN, DO, or OP • Tina and Tony are good at tap-dancing. • Object of a Preposition
S, PN, DO, or OP • Terry likes reading. • Direct Object
S, PN, DO, or OP • Walking was out of the question. • Subject
S, PN, DO, or OP • After arriving, we rode in a taxi to our hotel. • Object of a Preposition
S, PN, DO, or OP • Have you signed up yet for swimming? • Object of a Preposition
S, PN, DO, or OP • My mother always enjoys driving. • Direct Object
S, PN, DO, or OP • I know people who constantly think about eating. • Object of a Preposition
S, PN, DO, or OP • His favorite activity is sleeping. • Predicate Noun
S, PN, DO, or OP • It was time for sleeping. • Object of a Preposition
S, PN, DO, or OP • Why won’t that dog stop barking? • Direct Object
S, PN, DO, or OP • Jenny tried reading for a while. • Direct Object
S, PN, DO, or OP • Janine enjoyed floating lazily on the raft. • Direct Object