Officiallanguages in Sweden : 1999: • Finnish • Sami language • Romani chib • Yiddish • Meänkieli (Tornedal Finnish) 2009: • Swedish!
English as an international language • English is heard on TV, spoken by politicians from all over the world • The speaker doesn’tneedtohave a perfectcommandof the culture English expresses (English, American) • It is used by businessmen and tourists • It is used in the communicationofideas and culture • It functions as a bridge between speakers with different • linguisticbackgrounds • English plays the roleoflinguafranca
Competing global languages • Mandarin 845 /1025 • Spanish 329 /390 • Hindi/Urdu 240 /405 • Arabic 232 /452 • Portugese 178 /193 • Russian 144 /250 • French 68 /120 The five official languages of the UN are English, French, Spanish, Russian and Chinese English 328 / 1500
Why only English? • Halfof the world’sscientific journals is written in English • Three quartersof the world’s mail arewritten in English • Three fifthsof the radio stations of the world broadcast in English • English is spoken as a firstlanguage by 300 million people • One in fivepeoplespeak English competently
Why only English? • All international pilots • All international seacaptains • 7 largest TV broadcasters – CBS, NBC, ABC, BBC, CBC, CNN, C-Span • Halfof all newspapers
Why only English? • The flexibilityof the English language • Migration to the USA has created a segment of the world population whoseaim is tolearn English for survival purposes • Somecountriesuse English toavoidhavingtochoosebetween • conflictinglocallanguages
First, second or foreign? • Firstlanguage – used as a mothertongue • Second language– usedfor administration, broadcasting, education (India, Nigeria, Singapore) • Foreignlanguage - usedtopromotetrade, scientific progress, international communication, learnt in school(Sweden…)
The spread of English as a language • The industrial revolution, the British economicpredominance in the 19th century, the colonizationoflargegeographical areas • The displacementofFrench as a languageofdiplomacy • After World War II, therewas a rise in economicinfluence from the United States
The Future of Global English What kinds of development could impede, slow down or stop the future growth of English? • A significantchange in the balanceofpower • politically • economically • culturally • tecnologically
2 questions: What’s interestingtoknowaboutanotherEnglish speaking country? • Eachofyou makes a list! Look at your list – pick 3 countries (from slide11) thatyouwould like tolearnmoreabout!