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CHAPTER 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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CHAPTER 2. Recording Business Transactions. Pyramid. Inverted. Chapter 1. The Body of. Tools of The Recording Process. Debits and Credits Journal Entries Ledger Accounts. First, however, let’s look at. The Accounting Cycle. Analyze source documents.

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CHAPTER 2


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    1. CHAPTER 2 Recording Business Transactions

    2. Pyramid Inverted Chapter 1 The Body of

    3. Tools of The Recording Process • Debits and Credits • Journal Entries • Ledger Accounts

    4. First, however, let’s look at... The Accounting Cycle

    5. Analyze source documents. Journalize transactions in the general journal. Post entries to the accounts in the general ledger. Prepare a trial balance. Prepare financial statements. Steps in The Accounting Cycle

    6. Let’s start with A ledger account is a tool used for classifying and summarizing information about increases, decreases, and balances of financial statements items. • Think of it as a storage container like a bucket. • Dollars, which are used to measure economic transactions, are “poured” into and out of the container.

    7. General Ledger Was not a Civil War Hero

    8. Two General Ledger Account Formats • Three-Amount Column Format (Debit, Credit, Balance) • Used in general ledgers in the business world • T-Account Format • Used primarily for teaching and analysis of complex transactions

    9. General Ledger AccountThree-Amount Column Format ACCOUNT NAME: ACCOUNT No. 1 2 3 Date Description PR Debit Credit Balance

    10. General Ledger AccountT-Account Format For the sake of simplicity, we often use this format in teaching accounting even though it is no longer used in practice. Account Name Debit Credit

    11. The T-Account Increases to the T-account are recorded on one side of the T-account, and decreases are recorded on the other side. Account Name Debit Credit

    12. Account Name Debit Credit The T-Account The side whichincreases and the side which decreases is determined by the type of account.

    13. What Are Debits and Credits? • Tools used for recording transactions • Debit (DR) • Credit (CR) • Debit refers to the LEFT and Credit to the RIGHT side of the T-Account. • Debit and Credit are neutral terms and donot connote value judgments. Neither is “good” or “bad”!

    14. [Baltimore Sun, September 23, 1998]

    15. What Are Debits and Credits? • Tools used for recording transactions • Debit (DR) • Credit (CR) • Debit refers to the LEFT and Credit to the RIGHT side of the T-Account Account Name LEFT RIGHT

    16. What Are Debits and Credits? • Tools used for recording transactions • Debit (DR) • Credit (CR) • Debit refers to the LEFT and Credit to the RIGHT side of the T-Account Account Name LEFT RIGHT Used as Adjectives: DEBIT SIDE CREDIT SIDE

    17. What Are Debits and Credits? • Tools used for recording transactions • Debit (DR) • Credit (CR) • Debit refers to the LEFT and Credit to the RIGHT side of the T-Account Account Name LEFT RIGHT Used as Verbs: Synonym for Debit? DEBIT CREDIT

    18. Common Business Terminology

    19. Names of Ledger Accounts • There are no “magic” names for many accounts • e.g., either “Heat, Light & Power” or “Utilities Expense” could be used for an account name. • Other accounts have names which must be used • e.g., “Cash”, “Accounts Receivable” and “Accounts Payable”.

    20. Account Name Debit Credit Types of Ledger Accounts Let’s see how debits and credits affect the different types of accounts.

    21. Types of Ledger Accounts • Assets • Liabilities • Stockholders’ Equity • Revenues • Expenses

    22. Using Debits and Credits • Again, debits and credits are used to increase or decrease account balances. • Determining whether to use a debit or credit to record an increase or decrease depends on the type of account in question. • The Balance Sheet equation is the basis for the determination.

    23. Balance Sheet Model(Revisited) A = L + SE

    24. Account Name Account Name Account Name Debit Credit Debit Credit Debit Credit Balance Sheet Model(Revisited) Assign a T-Account to each element of the Balance Sheet Model A = L + SE

    25. Account Name Account Name Account Name Debit Credit Debit Credit Debit Credit Balance Sheet Model(Revisited) Debits and credits affect the Balance Sheet Model as follows: A = L + SE

    26. ASSETS Account Name Debit for Increase Credit for Decrease Debit Credit Balance Sheet Model(Revisited) Debits and credits affect the Balance Sheet Model as follows: A = L + SE Account Name Debit Credit

    27. ASSETS LIABILITIES Account Name Debit for Increase Credit for Decrease Debit for Decrease Credit for Increase Debit Credit Balance Sheet Model(Revisited) Debits and credits affect the Balance Sheet Model as follows: A = L + SE

    28. ASSETS LIABILITIES EQUITIES Debit for Increase Credit for Decrease Debit for Decrease Credit for Increase Debit for Decrease Credit for Increase Balance Sheet Model(Revisited) Debits and credits affect the Balance Sheet Model as follows: A = L + SE

    29. Stockholders’ EquityA Closer Look Recall that Stockholders’ Equity consists of the following components: Capital Stock + Retained Earnings C/S + R/E

    30. CAPITAL STOCK RET. EARNINGS Debit for Decrease Credit for Increase Debit for Decrease Credit for Increase Stockholders’ EquityA Closer Look Therefore, the Capital Stock and Retained Earningsaccounts are affected in the following manner by debits and credits because they are part of Stockholders’ Equity:

    31. REVENUES Debit for Decrease Credit for Increase Stockholders’ EquityA Closer Look Also, because Revenue accounts increase Stockholders’ Equity, they are affected by debits and credits as follows:

    32. EXPENSES Debit for Increase Credit for Decrease Stockholders’ EquityA Closer Look And because Expenseaccounts decrease Stockholders’ Equity, they are affected by debits and credits as follows:

    33. Normal Balances Each of the 5 account types also has a normalbalance side. It is always the side which is used to record increases in the account.

    34. Account Name Debit Balance Credit Balance Liabilities Stockholders’ Equity Revenues Assets Expenses Normal Balances The normal balances for each of the FIVE types of accounts are as follows:

    35. Three Alternative Approaches • Alternative #1 • The textbook approach on p. 59 • Alternative #2 • Expanded Accounting Equation • This is Rice’s preferred approach • Alternative #3 • “A L O R E” acronym

    36. 59 Alternative Approach #1Textbook Approach Check it out at top of page!

    37. Dr. Cr. Dr. Cr. - - + + Bal. Bal. Alternative Approach #2Expanded Accounting Equation ASSETS + EXP. = LIAB. + S/H EQUITY + REV. A + E = L + S/E + R

    38. Alternative Approach #3“A L O R E” Acronym DebitCredit + - - + - + - + + - A (ssets) L (iabilities) O (wners' equity) R (evenues) E (xpenses)

    39. Debits and CreditsQuestion 1 Which of the following accounts would normally be expected to have a debit (or left-side) balance? a. Accounts Payable b. Buildings c. Interest Revenue d. Capital Stock

    40. Debits and Credits Solution 1 Which of the following accounts would normally be expected to have a debit (or left-side) balance? a. Accounts Payable b. Buildings c. Interest Revenue d. Capital Stock BUILDINGS is an asset account and normally has a DEBIT balance. The other three accounts normally have CREDIT balances.

    41. Debits and Credits Question 2 Which of the following accounts would normally be expected to have a credit (or right-side) balance? a. Accounts Receivable b. Salary Expense c. Salary Payable d. Land

    42. Debits and Credits Solution 2 Which of the following accounts would normally be expected to have a credit (or right-side) balance? a. Accounts Receivable b. Salary Expense c. Salary Payable d. Land

    43. Debits and Credits Solution 2 Which of the following accounts would normally be expected to have a credit (or right-side) balance? a. Accounts Receivable b. Salary Expense c. Salary Payable d. Land SALARY PAYABLE is a liability account and normally has a CREDIT balance. The other three accounts normally have DEBIT balances.

    44. Debits and Credits Example If the balance in Accounts Receivable (an asset) is $750 (debit side balance), Accounts Receivable 750

    45. Debits and Credits Example If the balance in Accounts Receivable (an asset) is $750 (debit side balance),What would we do to increasethe account by $200? Accounts Receivable 750

    46. Debits and Credits Example If the balance in Accounts Receivable (an asset) is $750 (debit side balance),What would we do to increasethe account by $200? Accounts Receivable 750 200

    47. Debits and Credits Example If the balance in Accounts Receivable (an asset) is $750 (debit side balance),What would we do to increasethe account by $200? What would we do to decrease the account by $350? Accounts Receivable 750 200

    48. Debits and Credits Example If the balance in Accounts Receivable (an asset) is $750 (debit side balance),What would we do to increasethe account by $200? What would we do to decrease the account by $350? Accounts Receivable 750 350 200

    49. Debits and Credits Example Note the lack of $. It is understood that the yardstick is dollars. It is not “money”! Accounts Receivable 750 350 200

    50. Balancing The T-Account To get the balance of the T-Account . . . . . . net the totals on the two sides against each other. Place the residual amount on the appropriate side. Accounts Receivable 750 350 200