Dna rna and protein synthesis review
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DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis Review. 1. What does DNA stand for?. Deoxyribonucleic Acid. 2. What are the repeating subunits called that make up DNA? . Nucleotides. 3. Sketch and label the 3 parts of a DNA nucleotide. Include a phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, and nitrogenous base.

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1 what does dna stand for
1. What does DNA stand for?

  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid



3 sketch and label the 3 parts of a dna nucleotide
3. Sketch and label the 3 parts of a DNA nucleotide.

  • Include a phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, and nitrogenous base


4 name the 4 nitrogen bases on dna spelled out spelling counts on the test
4. Name the 4 nitrogen bases on DNA (spelled out – spelling counts on the test).

  • Adenine (A)

  • Thymine (T)

  • Guanine (G)

  • Cytosine (C)


5 what scientists made the first ever model of dna as a double helix
5. What scientists made the first ever model of DNA as a double helix?

  • James Watson and Francis Crick


6 what is chargaff s rule
6. What is Chargaff’s rule? double helix?

  • Chargaff found that for a particular species, the concentration of adenine is roughly equal to the concentration of thymine (A=T) and cytosine is roughly equal to guanine (G=C)

  • This helped found the base pair rule, that A always pairs with T, and C always pairs with G


In the dna of a particular species there is 26 adenine
In the DNA of a particular species, there is 26% adenine double helix?

  • Since A = T,

  • A. Thymine = 26% (roughly)

    To figure out C and G, subtract from 100%

    100 – 26 – 26 = 48, then divide equally into C and G

  • B. Cytosine = 24%

  • C. Guanine = 24%

    *Be prepared to do problems without a calculator on the test


7 how did rosalind franklin contribute to determining the structure of dna
7. How did Rosalind Franklin contribute to determining the structure of DNA?

  • She produced an X-Ray diffraction photo that showed DNA.


8 what makes up the sides of a dna molecule
8. What makes up the sides of a DNA molecule? structure of DNA?

  • Sugar & Phosphate


9 what makes up the steps of a dna molecule
9. What makes up the “steps” of a DNA molecule? structure of DNA?

  • The nitrogenous bases (A,T,G,C)


10 what type of bonds hold the dna bases together are they strong or weak bonds
10. What type of bonds hold the DNA bases together? Are they strong or weak bonds?

  • Weak hydrogen bonds


11 what type of bonds hold the backbone of the dna molecule together
11. What type of bonds hold the "backbone" of the DNA molecule together?

  • Covalent bonds join sugar & phosphate


12 name the complementary base pairs in dna
12. Name the complementary base pairs in DNA. molecule together?

  • Adenine – Thymine

  • Guanine - Cytosine


13 why must dna be able to copy itself
13. Why must DNA be able to copy itself? molecule together?

  • DNA must be copied in order for a cell to divide

  • Transmit information for traits to the next generation


14 define semi conservative replication in dna coloring packet
14. Define semi-conservative replication. (in DNA coloring packet!)

  • DNA saves or conserves 1 strand to produce 1 new strand

  • Produces 2 identical double-stranded DNA molecules, each containing 1 “original” strand, and 1 “new” strand


15 what is the first step that must occur in dna replication
15. What is the first step that must occur in DNA replication?

  • Separating of the two strands of DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds


16 what is a replication fork
16. What is a replication fork? replication?

  • The place where DNA separates in order to be copied.


17 what are the functions of dna polymerase
17. What are the functions of DNA polymerase? replication?

  • DNA polymerases add nucleotides to new DNA strands

  • DNA polymerase also proofreads the strands for errors


Dna rna and protein synthesis review
18. Why aren’t many genes located on the tips, or telomeres, of chromosomes? What does telomerase do to help with this?

  • Telomeres are susceptible to damage, and thus don’t contain many genes

  • Telomerase is an enzyme that adds short, repeated nucleotides to the ends so that if damage occurs, the chromosomes are not affected, since the sequences don’t contain genes


Dna rna and protein synthesis review

19. If the sequence of nucleotides on the original DNA strand was A-G-G-C-T-A, what would be the nucleotide sequence on the complementary strand of DNA?

  • TCCGAT


20 does replication of dna begin at one end and proceed to the other explain
20. Does replication of DNA begin at one end and proceed to the other? Explain.

  • No, it can begin at many places, and proceeds in opposite directions until the entire sequence has been replicated


21 why does dna replication take place at many places on the molecule simultaneously
21. Why does DNA replication take place at many places on the molecule simultaneously?

  • To replicate (copy) the DNA quicker.


22 is dna replicated before or after cell division
22. Is DNA replicated before or after cell division? the molecule simultaneously?

  • Before cell division (interphase – S phase = DNA synthesis, which is the another way of saying DNA replication)


23 sketch label dna replication
23. Sketch & label DNA replication. the molecule simultaneously?


24 give 3 differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic replication
24. Give 3 differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic replication:

  • Prokaryotic replication involves circular DNA (vs. double helix)

  • Prokaryotic replication takes place in the cytoplasm (vs. nucleus)

  • Prokaryotic replication has 1 origin (vs. many origins for eukaryotic replication)


25 what sugar is found on rna as compared to dna
25. What sugar is found on RNA, as compared to DNA? replication:

  • Ribose (vs. deoxyribose)





29 name the 3 types of rna and tell the job of each
29. Name the 3 types of RNA and tell the job of each. it?

  • mRNA – carries code from DNA out into cytoplasm; codons on mRNA code for 1 amino acid

  • tRNA – transfers amino acids to the ribosome based on mRNA codons

    • Anticodon is complementary to codon

  • rRNA – makes up subunits of the ribosome (which are the protein-makers)


30 in transcription is converted to this occurs in the
30. In transcription, _______ is converted to ______. This occurs in the ________.

  • DNA is converted to RNA in the nucleus


31 what happens to the newly made mrna molecule following transcription in the nucleus
31. What happens to the newly made mRNA molecule following transcription in the nucleus?

  • mRNA travels out the nuclear pores into the cytoplasm and attaches to the ribosome


32 what is rna polymerase what is its function
32. What is RNA polymerase & what is its function? transcription in the nucleus?

  • Enzyme that copies DNA into RNA


33 what bases pair with each other during transcription
33. What bases pair with each other during transcription? transcription in the nucleus?

  • DNA  RNA

  • Cytosine  guanine

  • Guanine  cytosine

  • Adenine  uracil

  • Thymine  adenine


34 in what part of a cell are proteins made
34. In what part of a cell are proteins made? transcription in the nucleus?

  • Ribosomes, floating in the cytoplasm or attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum


35 what are the subunits called that make up proteins
35. What are the subunits called that make up proteins? transcription in the nucleus?

  • Amino acids


36 how many different kinds of amino acids make up proteins
36. How many different kinds of amino acids make up proteins?

  • There are 20 amino acids and they can be combined in all different combinations to create every protein in your body

  • Everything in you is made OF or BY at least one protein


37 what is a codon what does each codon code for
37. What is a codon & what does each codon code for? proteins?

  • Group of three bases on mRNA

  • Codes for 1 amino acid



39 what are the start 1 and stop 3 codons for protein synthesis
39. What are the START (1) and STOP (3) codons for protein synthesis?

  • Start codon = AUG

  • Stop codons = UAG, UAA, UGA


40 what is the start codon used for what is the stop codon used for
40. What is the ‘start’ codon used for? What is the stop codon used for?

  • Start codons initiate protein synthesis (tell the ribosome to start making the protein)

  • Stop codons halt protein synthesis (tell the ribosome that the protein is done)


41 name the amino acid coded for by each of these codons
41. Name the amino acid coded for by each of these codons. codon used for?

  • UUA = Leucine

  • AUU = Isoleucine

  • UGU = Cysteine

  • AAA = Lysine

  • GAG = Glutamic Acid

  • CAA = Glutamine



43 sketch and label a trna molecule tell its function
43. Sketch and label a tRNA molecule & tell its function. cytoplasm?

  • Purple ball is the amino acid (top)

  • Attached to the bottomis the anticodon

  • Function is to carry theamino acids for proteinsynthesis


44 describe translation from the beginning to the final end product
44. Describe translation from the beginning, to the final end product:

  • mRNA attaches to ribosome

  • tRNA carries amino acids to ribosome and matches them to coded mRNA message (codon)

  • Amino acids bond together, forming long chain called a polypeptide

  • Polypeptides are folded depending on their function and begin their job

  • (See p368-69, esp figures @ bottom)


45 where are amino acids found in a cell
45. Where are amino acids found in a cell? end product:

  • Floating in the cytoplasm, attached to tRNA molecules


46 what is an anticodon where is it found on trna
46. What is an anticodon & where is it found on tRNA? end product:

  • Complementary to mRNA codon

  • At the bottom


47 what codon on mrna would bind with these anticodons use p367
47. What codon on mRNA would bind with these anticodons: (use p367)

  • AAA = UUU

  • GGA = CCU

  • UAC = AUG

  • CGU = GCA



Dna rna and protein synthesis review
49. Fill in the chart below with the anticodons/amino acids that would be coded for by the mRNA sequence provided:

  • UAA CAA GGA CGA UCC (codons)

  • AUU GUU CCU GCU AGG (anticodons)

  • Stop, glutamine, glycine, arginine, serine

  • Remember, the CODONS code for amino acids, not anticodons

  • Anticodons help match amino acids to the codons


2 nd question on 49
2 that would be coded for by the mRNA sequence provided:nd question on #49

  • UGA CCC GAU UUC AGC (codons)

  • ACU GGG CUA AAG UCG (anticodons)

  • Stop, glycine, aspartic acid, lysine, serine